Abstract

Droplet deformation and alignment are achieved in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal reflection gratings by applying an in situ shear during recording. High diffraction efficiency (99%) is obtained for light polarized parallel to the shear, with nearly zero efficiency for perpendicular polarization, and no increase of incoherent scattering. Permanent polarization dependence is related to stress-induced morphology changes of liquid-crystal droplets that are frozen by polymerization. The system is studied by electron microscopy and modeled by anisotropic coupled-wave and scattering theory. The morphology is consistent with the theory of small deformations of liquid droplets in fluid flow. Diffraction efficiency measurements are in agreement with theory incorporating this morphology as well as concomitant orientation and alignment of liquid-crystal molecules.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. V. Natarajan, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, R. L. Sutherland, S. Chandra, V. P. Tondiglia, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Chem. Mater. 15, 2477 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. A. Holmstrom, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, and T. J. Bunning, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1949 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Date, Y. Takeuchi, K. Tanaka, and K. Kato, IEICE Trans. Electron. E81-C, 1685 (1998).
  4. R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, P. F. Lloyd, and T. J. Bunning, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 123104 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. See, for example, H. A. Stone, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 26, 65 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. I. Taylor, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 146, 501 (1934).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. D. Rumscheidt and S. G. Mason, J. Colloid Sci. 16, 238 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. L. Sutherland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2995 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. T. Wu, College of Optics & Photonics, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Boulevard, Orlando, Florida, 32816 (private communication, 2008).

2006 (1)

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, P. F. Lloyd, and T. J. Bunning, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 123104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

S. A. Holmstrom, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, and T. J. Bunning, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1949 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

L. V. Natarajan, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, R. L. Sutherland, S. Chandra, V. P. Tondiglia, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Chem. Mater. 15, 2477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1998 (1)

M. Date, Y. Takeuchi, K. Tanaka, and K. Kato, IEICE Trans. Electron. E81-C, 1685 (1998).

1994 (1)

See, for example, H. A. Stone, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 26, 65 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

F. D. Rumscheidt and S. G. Mason, J. Colloid Sci. 16, 238 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1934 (1)

G. I. Taylor, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 146, 501 (1934).
[CrossRef]

Brandelik, D. M.

L. V. Natarajan, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, R. L. Sutherland, S. Chandra, V. P. Tondiglia, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Chem. Mater. 15, 2477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T. J.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, P. F. Lloyd, and T. J. Bunning, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 123104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Holmstrom, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, and T. J. Bunning, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1949 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Natarajan, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, R. L. Sutherland, S. Chandra, V. P. Tondiglia, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Chem. Mater. 15, 2477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chandra, S.

L. V. Natarajan, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, R. L. Sutherland, S. Chandra, V. P. Tondiglia, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Chem. Mater. 15, 2477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Date, M.

M. Date, Y. Takeuchi, K. Tanaka, and K. Kato, IEICE Trans. Electron. E81-C, 1685 (1998).

Holmstrom, S. A.

S. A. Holmstrom, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, and T. J. Bunning, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1949 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kato, K.

M. Date, Y. Takeuchi, K. Tanaka, and K. Kato, IEICE Trans. Electron. E81-C, 1685 (1998).

Lloyd, P. F.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, P. F. Lloyd, and T. J. Bunning, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 123104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mason, S. G.

F. D. Rumscheidt and S. G. Mason, J. Colloid Sci. 16, 238 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, L. V.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, P. F. Lloyd, and T. J. Bunning, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 123104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Holmstrom, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, and T. J. Bunning, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1949 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Natarajan, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, R. L. Sutherland, S. Chandra, V. P. Tondiglia, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Chem. Mater. 15, 2477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rumscheidt, F. D.

F. D. Rumscheidt and S. G. Mason, J. Colloid Sci. 16, 238 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, C. K.

L. V. Natarajan, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, R. L. Sutherland, S. Chandra, V. P. Tondiglia, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Chem. Mater. 15, 2477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stone, H. A.

See, for example, H. A. Stone, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 26, 65 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R. L.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, P. F. Lloyd, and T. J. Bunning, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 123104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Holmstrom, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, and T. J. Bunning, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1949 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Natarajan, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, R. L. Sutherland, S. Chandra, V. P. Tondiglia, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Chem. Mater. 15, 2477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2995 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, Y.

M. Date, Y. Takeuchi, K. Tanaka, and K. Kato, IEICE Trans. Electron. E81-C, 1685 (1998).

Tanaka, K.

M. Date, Y. Takeuchi, K. Tanaka, and K. Kato, IEICE Trans. Electron. E81-C, 1685 (1998).

Taylor, G. I.

G. I. Taylor, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 146, 501 (1934).
[CrossRef]

Tomlin, D.

L. V. Natarajan, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, R. L. Sutherland, S. Chandra, V. P. Tondiglia, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Chem. Mater. 15, 2477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tondiglia, V. P.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, P. F. Lloyd, and T. J. Bunning, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 123104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Holmstrom, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, and T. J. Bunning, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1949 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Natarajan, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, R. L. Sutherland, S. Chandra, V. P. Tondiglia, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Chem. Mater. 15, 2477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

S. T. Wu, College of Optics & Photonics, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Boulevard, Orlando, Florida, 32816 (private communication, 2008).

Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (1)

See, for example, H. A. Stone, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 26, 65 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. A. Holmstrom, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, and T. J. Bunning, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1949 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

L. V. Natarajan, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, R. L. Sutherland, S. Chandra, V. P. Tondiglia, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Chem. Mater. 15, 2477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

M. Date, Y. Takeuchi, K. Tanaka, and K. Kato, IEICE Trans. Electron. E81-C, 1685 (1998).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, P. F. Lloyd, and T. J. Bunning, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 123104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid Sci. (1)

F. D. Rumscheidt and S. G. Mason, J. Colloid Sci. 16, 238 (1961).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A (1)

G. I. Taylor, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 146, 501 (1934).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. T. Wu, College of Optics & Photonics, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Boulevard, Orlando, Florida, 32816 (private communication, 2008).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral transmittance of HPDLC reflection gratings. The symbols are data and the solid curves are theoretical calculations. Inset, diagram of a thin-film HPDLC grating model.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cryogenic SEM photograph of a sheared HPDLC reflection grating.

Equations (2)

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ε j j ( 1 ) ( c H α 1 α ) f 0 α ( n i 2 n p 2 ) + c d c H f 0 α β j S ( n e 2 n o 2 ) ,
( δ ε j ) 2 = f d { ( 1 f d ) [ ( 1 f H 1 f d ) ( n i 2 n p 2 ) + β j S ( n e 2 n o 2 ) ] 2 + γ j S 2 ( n e 2 n o 2 ) 2 } .

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