Abstract

Frequency combs obtained by sinusoidal phase modulation of narrowband cw lasers are widely used in the field of optical communications. However, the resulting spectral envelope of the comb is not flat. We propose a general and efficient approach to achieve flat frequency combs with tunable bandwidth. The idea is based on a two-step process. First, efficient generation of a train with a temporal flat-top-pulse profile is required. Second, we use large parabolic phase modulation in every train period to map the temporal intensity shape into the spectral domain. In this way the resulting spectral envelope is flat, and the size is tunable with the chirping rate. Two different schemes are proposed and verified through numerical simulations.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2008 (1)

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, I. Ozdur, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

T. Yamamoto, T. Komukai, K. Takada, and A. Susuki, Electron. Lett. 43, 1040 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, Opt. Lett. 32, 1515 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. L. Gheorma and G. K. Gopalakrishnan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1011 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Healy, F. C. G. Gunning, A. D. Ellis, and J. D. Bull, Opt. Express 15, 2981 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

2005 (1)

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, and S. Kawanishi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1746 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Azaña, N. K. Berger, B. Levit, and B. Fischer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 882 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

C. V. Bennett and B. H. Kolner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 20 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. T. Kauffman, W. C. Banyai, A. A. Godil, and D. M. Bloom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 270 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Abe, M.

Andrés, P.

Banyai, W. C.

M. T. Kauffman, W. C. Banyai, A. A. Godil, and D. M. Bloom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 270 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, C. V.

C. V. Bennett and B. H. Kolner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 20 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Berger, N. K.

J. Azaña, N. K. Berger, B. Levit, and B. Fischer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 882 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bloom, D. M.

M. T. Kauffman, W. C. Banyai, A. A. Godil, and D. M. Bloom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 270 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bull, J. D.

Choi, M. T.

Delfyett, P. J.

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, I. Ozdur, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Delfyett, S. Gee, M. T. Choi, H. Izadpanah, W. Lee, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, and T. Yilmaz, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, A. D.

Fischer, B.

J. Azaña, N. K. Berger, B. Levit, and B. Fischer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 882 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

Gee, S.

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, I. Ozdur, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Delfyett, S. Gee, M. T. Choi, H. Izadpanah, W. Lee, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, and T. Yilmaz, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gheorma, I. L.

I. L. Gheorma and G. K. Gopalakrishnan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1011 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Godil, A. A.

M. T. Kauffman, W. C. Banyai, A. A. Godil, and D. M. Bloom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 270 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gopalakrishnan, G. K.

I. L. Gheorma and G. K. Gopalakrishnan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1011 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gunning, F. C. G.

Healy, T.

Huang, C. B.

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iwatsuki, K.

Izadpanah, H.

Izutsu, M.

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kani, J.

Kauffman, M. T.

M. T. Kauffman, W. C. Banyai, A. A. Godil, and D. M. Bloom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 270 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kawanishi, S.

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, and S. Kawanishi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1746 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kawanishi, T.

Kolner, B. H.

C. V. Bennett and B. H. Kolner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 20 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Komukai, T.

T. Yamamoto, T. Komukai, K. Takada, and A. Susuki, Electron. Lett. 43, 1040 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, and S. Kawanishi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1746 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lancis, J.

Leaird, D. E.

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.

Levit, B.

J. Azaña, N. K. Berger, B. Levit, and B. Fischer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 882 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, H.

Morioka, T.

Ohara, T.

Ozdur, I.

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, I. Ozdur, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ozharar, S.

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, I. Ozdur, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Delfyett, S. Gee, M. T. Choi, H. Izadpanah, W. Lee, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, and T. Yilmaz, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Quinlan, F.

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, I. Ozdur, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Delfyett, S. Gee, M. T. Choi, H. Izadpanah, W. Lee, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, and T. Yilmaz, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, T.

Susuki, A.

T. Yamamoto, T. Komukai, K. Takada, and A. Susuki, Electron. Lett. 43, 1040 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, H.

Takachio, N.

Takada, K.

T. Yamamoto, T. Komukai, K. Takada, and A. Susuki, Electron. Lett. 43, 1040 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

Takara, H.

Teshima, M.

Torres-Company, V.

Weiner, A. M.

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

T. Yamamoto, T. Komukai, K. Takada, and A. Susuki, Electron. Lett. 43, 1040 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohara, H. Takara, T. Yamamoto, H. Masuda, T. Morioka, M. Abe, and H. Takahashi, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, and S. Kawanishi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1746 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yilmaz, T.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. T. Kauffman, W. C. Banyai, A. A. Godil, and D. M. Bloom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 270 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Yamamoto, T. Komukai, K. Takada, and A. Susuki, Electron. Lett. 43, 1040 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. V. Bennett and B. H. Kolner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 20 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, and S. Kawanishi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1746 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Azaña, N. K. Berger, B. Levit, and B. Fischer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 882 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, I. Ozdur, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. L. Gheorma and G. K. Gopalakrishnan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1011 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Nat. Photonics (1)

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

General scheme for achieving flat-top frequency combs based on TTF conversion.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) First proposal for flat-top comb generator; (b) intensity flat-top-pulse train; (c) corresponding normalized energy spectrum before entering the TTF converter; (d) intensity pulse train (solid curve) modulated with an ideal periodic time lens (dashed curve); (e) corresponding normalized frequency comb; (f) flat-top pulse train (solid curve) phase-modulated with an EOPM driven with a sinusoidal signal (dashed curve) featuring a periodic time lens satisfying TTF conversion; (g) corresponding normalized frequency comb. Numerical settings are explained in the text.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Second proposal for flat-top comb generator; (b) normalized frequency comb achieved when a perfect periodic time lens is used as the TTF converter; (c) achieved normalized frequency comb when an EOPM is used as the time lens. Numerical settings are explained in the text.

Equations (5)

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K Δ ω 2 4 π .
S ( ω ) = I 0 ( ω K ) n = δ ( ω 2 π n T ) ,
n l K σ 2 π f r ,
e ( t ) = A 0 { 1 + exp ( i Φ ) exp [ i Δ θ 1 sin ( 2 π f r 1 t ) ] } ,
e ( t ) = A 0 exp [ i V ( t ) ] { 1 + i exp [ 2 i V ( t ) ] } ,

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