Abstract

We investigated the dynamics of spontaneous emission from a photonic crystal etched into a SiN slab. After fitting the decay curves of the emission to double exponential functions, we divided the dynamic process of the spontaneous emission into a fast process and a slow process. It was observed that the presence of the photonic crystal increased the proportion of the fast decay component, and consequently, the emission rate and time-integrated emission intensity were also enhanced. These enhancements were a result of the coupling of the guide modes to the leaky modes of the photonic crystal slab waveguide.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Dal Negro, J. H. Yi, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, T.-W. F. Chang, V. Sukhovatkin, and E. H. Sargent, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 233109 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Zelsmann, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, E. Hadji, M. Heitzmann, B. Dal'zotto, M. E. Nier, C. Seassal, P. Rojo-Romeo, and X. Letartre, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2542 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, Science 308, 1296 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Kress, F. Hofbauer, N. Reinelt, M. Kaniber, H. J. Krenner, R. Meyer, G. Böhm, and J. J. Finley, Phys. Rev. B 71, 241304(R) (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Giorgis, V. Ballarini, S. Ferrero, P. Mandracci, C. Ricciardi, and C. F. Pirri, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 653 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Bayindir, S. Tanriseven, A. Aydinli, and E. Ozbay, Appl. Phys. A 73, 125 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. S. Xu, T. Yamada, and Akira Otomo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091911 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. S. Seol and M. Takiyama, Phys. Rev. B 62, 1532 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. R. Tessler, Solid State Commun. 111, 193 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

X. S. Xu, T. Yamada, and Akira Otomo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

L. Dal Negro, J. H. Yi, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, T.-W. F. Chang, V. Sukhovatkin, and E. H. Sargent, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 233109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, Science 308, 1296 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kress, F. Hofbauer, N. Reinelt, M. Kaniber, H. J. Krenner, R. Meyer, G. Böhm, and J. J. Finley, Phys. Rev. B 71, 241304(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. Zelsmann, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, E. Hadji, M. Heitzmann, B. Dal'zotto, M. E. Nier, C. Seassal, P. Rojo-Romeo, and X. Letartre, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2542 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

F. Giorgis, V. Ballarini, S. Ferrero, P. Mandracci, C. Ricciardi, and C. F. Pirri, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 653 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Bayindir, S. Tanriseven, A. Aydinli, and E. Ozbay, Appl. Phys. A 73, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

K. S. Seol and M. Takiyama, Phys. Rev. B 62, 1532 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

L. R. Tessler, Solid State Commun. 111, 193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, Science 308, 1296 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aydinli, A.

M. Bayindir, S. Tanriseven, A. Aydinli, and E. Ozbay, Appl. Phys. A 73, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ballarini, V.

F. Giorgis, V. Ballarini, S. Ferrero, P. Mandracci, C. Ricciardi, and C. F. Pirri, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 653 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bayindir, M.

M. Bayindir, S. Tanriseven, A. Aydinli, and E. Ozbay, Appl. Phys. A 73, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Böhm, G.

A. Kress, F. Hofbauer, N. Reinelt, M. Kaniber, H. J. Krenner, R. Meyer, G. Böhm, and J. J. Finley, Phys. Rev. B 71, 241304(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, T.-W. F.

L. Dal Negro, J. H. Yi, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, T.-W. F. Chang, V. Sukhovatkin, and E. H. Sargent, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 233109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Charvolin, T.

M. Zelsmann, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, E. Hadji, M. Heitzmann, B. Dal'zotto, M. E. Nier, C. Seassal, P. Rojo-Romeo, and X. Letartre, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2542 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dal Negro, L.

L. Dal Negro, J. H. Yi, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, T.-W. F. Chang, V. Sukhovatkin, and E. H. Sargent, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 233109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dal'zotto, B.

M. Zelsmann, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, E. Hadji, M. Heitzmann, B. Dal'zotto, M. E. Nier, C. Seassal, P. Rojo-Romeo, and X. Letartre, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2542 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S. H.

S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ferrero, S.

F. Giorgis, V. Ballarini, S. Ferrero, P. Mandracci, C. Ricciardi, and C. F. Pirri, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 653 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Finley, J. J.

A. Kress, F. Hofbauer, N. Reinelt, M. Kaniber, H. J. Krenner, R. Meyer, G. Böhm, and J. J. Finley, Phys. Rev. B 71, 241304(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, M.

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, Science 308, 1296 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giorgis, F.

F. Giorgis, V. Ballarini, S. Ferrero, P. Mandracci, C. Ricciardi, and C. F. Pirri, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 653 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hadji, E.

M. Zelsmann, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, E. Hadji, M. Heitzmann, B. Dal'zotto, M. E. Nier, C. Seassal, P. Rojo-Romeo, and X. Letartre, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2542 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Heitzmann, M.

M. Zelsmann, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, E. Hadji, M. Heitzmann, B. Dal'zotto, M. E. Nier, C. Seassal, P. Rojo-Romeo, and X. Letartre, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2542 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hofbauer, F.

A. Kress, F. Hofbauer, N. Reinelt, M. Kaniber, H. J. Krenner, R. Meyer, G. Böhm, and J. J. Finley, Phys. Rev. B 71, 241304(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kaniber, M.

A. Kress, F. Hofbauer, N. Reinelt, M. Kaniber, H. J. Krenner, R. Meyer, G. Böhm, and J. J. Finley, Phys. Rev. B 71, 241304(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

L. Dal Negro, J. H. Yi, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, T.-W. F. Chang, V. Sukhovatkin, and E. H. Sargent, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 233109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krenner, H. J.

A. Kress, F. Hofbauer, N. Reinelt, M. Kaniber, H. J. Krenner, R. Meyer, G. Böhm, and J. J. Finley, Phys. Rev. B 71, 241304(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kress, A.

A. Kress, F. Hofbauer, N. Reinelt, M. Kaniber, H. J. Krenner, R. Meyer, G. Böhm, and J. J. Finley, Phys. Rev. B 71, 241304(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Letartre, X.

M. Zelsmann, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, E. Hadji, M. Heitzmann, B. Dal'zotto, M. E. Nier, C. Seassal, P. Rojo-Romeo, and X. Letartre, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2542 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mandracci, P.

F. Giorgis, V. Ballarini, S. Ferrero, P. Mandracci, C. Ricciardi, and C. F. Pirri, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 653 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, R.

A. Kress, F. Hofbauer, N. Reinelt, M. Kaniber, H. J. Krenner, R. Meyer, G. Böhm, and J. J. Finley, Phys. Rev. B 71, 241304(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

L. Dal Negro, J. H. Yi, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, T.-W. F. Chang, V. Sukhovatkin, and E. H. Sargent, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 233109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nier, M. E.

M. Zelsmann, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, E. Hadji, M. Heitzmann, B. Dal'zotto, M. E. Nier, C. Seassal, P. Rojo-Romeo, and X. Letartre, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2542 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, Science 308, 1296 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Otomo, Akira

X. S. Xu, T. Yamada, and Akira Otomo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

M. Bayindir, S. Tanriseven, A. Aydinli, and E. Ozbay, Appl. Phys. A 73, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Picard, E.

M. Zelsmann, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, E. Hadji, M. Heitzmann, B. Dal'zotto, M. E. Nier, C. Seassal, P. Rojo-Romeo, and X. Letartre, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2542 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pirri, C. F.

F. Giorgis, V. Ballarini, S. Ferrero, P. Mandracci, C. Ricciardi, and C. F. Pirri, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 653 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reinelt, N.

A. Kress, F. Hofbauer, N. Reinelt, M. Kaniber, H. J. Krenner, R. Meyer, G. Böhm, and J. J. Finley, Phys. Rev. B 71, 241304(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ricciardi, C.

F. Giorgis, V. Ballarini, S. Ferrero, P. Mandracci, C. Ricciardi, and C. F. Pirri, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 653 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rojo-Romeo, P.

M. Zelsmann, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, E. Hadji, M. Heitzmann, B. Dal'zotto, M. E. Nier, C. Seassal, P. Rojo-Romeo, and X. Letartre, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2542 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sargent, E. H.

L. Dal Negro, J. H. Yi, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, T.-W. F. Chang, V. Sukhovatkin, and E. H. Sargent, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 233109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Seassal, C.

M. Zelsmann, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, E. Hadji, M. Heitzmann, B. Dal'zotto, M. E. Nier, C. Seassal, P. Rojo-Romeo, and X. Letartre, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2542 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Seol, K. S.

K. S. Seol and M. Takiyama, Phys. Rev. B 62, 1532 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sukhovatkin, V.

L. Dal Negro, J. H. Yi, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, T.-W. F. Chang, V. Sukhovatkin, and E. H. Sargent, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 233109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, S.

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, Science 308, 1296 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takiyama, M.

K. S. Seol and M. Takiyama, Phys. Rev. B 62, 1532 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, Science 308, 1296 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanriseven, S.

M. Bayindir, S. Tanriseven, A. Aydinli, and E. Ozbay, Appl. Phys. A 73, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tessler, L. R.

L. R. Tessler, Solid State Commun. 111, 193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X. S.

X. S. Xu, T. Yamada, and Akira Otomo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

X. S. Xu, T. Yamada, and Akira Otomo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yi, J. H.

L. Dal Negro, J. H. Yi, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, T.-W. F. Chang, V. Sukhovatkin, and E. H. Sargent, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 233109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zelsmann, M.

M. Zelsmann, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, E. Hadji, M. Heitzmann, B. Dal'zotto, M. E. Nier, C. Seassal, P. Rojo-Romeo, and X. Letartre, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2542 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

M. Bayindir, S. Tanriseven, A. Aydinli, and E. Ozbay, Appl. Phys. A 73, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

X. S. Xu, T. Yamada, and Akira Otomo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Dal Negro, J. H. Yi, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, T.-W. F. Chang, V. Sukhovatkin, and E. H. Sargent, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 233109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Zelsmann, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, E. Hadji, M. Heitzmann, B. Dal'zotto, M. E. Nier, C. Seassal, P. Rojo-Romeo, and X. Letartre, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2542 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

F. Giorgis, V. Ballarini, S. Ferrero, P. Mandracci, C. Ricciardi, and C. F. Pirri, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 653 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

A. Kress, F. Hofbauer, N. Reinelt, M. Kaniber, H. J. Krenner, R. Meyer, G. Böhm, and J. J. Finley, Phys. Rev. B 71, 241304(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Seol and M. Takiyama, Phys. Rev. B 62, 1532 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, Science 308, 1296 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solid State Commun. (1)

L. R. Tessler, Solid State Commun. 111, 193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM image of the fabricated SiN photonic crystal with a lattice constant of 450 nm and a hole radius of 135 nm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated two-dimensional band structure for a SiN slab with a triangular lattice. The effective refractive index is 1.6, and the radius is 0.35 times the lattice constant.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Decay curves for photonic crystals with lattice constants of 450 and 340 nm and for a uniform material. The curve of a = 450 nm was fitted to a single exponential function, while the other two were fitted to double exponential functions. The dotted curves represent the corresponding fitted lines. Inset, PL spectrum of the SiN material. (b) Decay curves at the centers of photonic crystals with different parameters, where PC represents photonic crystal and no-PC represents uniform material.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Proportion of fast and slow decay component as functions of lattice constant. (b) Fast and slow lifetimes as functions of lattice constant. (c) Comparison of the time-integrated PL intensity of emission and the fast lifetime for photonic crystals with different lattice constants and for a uniform material. (d) Average enhancement factor for the time-integrated PL intensity and the normalized emission rate, which is the ratio of emission rate in a photonic crystal to that in a uniform material. The emission rate here is inversely proportional to the fast lifetime.

Equations (1)

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I = I 0 + A f exp ( t t f ) + A s exp ( t t s ) ,

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