Abstract

A technique to improve the dynamic range of a photonic microwave bandpass filter is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The filter is implemented based on phase modulation to intensity modulation conversion using fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) serving as frequency discriminators, with the optical carriers located at the left or right slopes of the FBGs, to generate positive or negative tap coefficients. The dynamic range of the photonic microwave bandpass filter is increased by reducing the optical-carrier-induced shot noise and relative intensity noise at the photodetector, which is realized by placing the optical carriers at the lower slopes of the FBG reflection spectra. A photonic microwave bandpass filter with an improvement in dynamic range of about 10dB is demonstrated.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. H. Schaffner and W. B. Bridges, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 3 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Yamamoto, N. Edagawa, H. Taga, Y. Yoshida, and H. Wakabayashi, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1716 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. B. Waterhouse, D. Siveco, A. Y. Cho, G. Ghione, and M. C. Wu, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1956 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. D. Esman and K. J. Williams, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 218 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. X. J. Meng and A. Karim, Fiber Integr. Opt. 25, 161 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. T. E. Darcie, A. Moye, P. F. Driessen, J. D. Bull, H. Kato, and N. A. F. Jaeger, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (Seoul, South Korea, 2005), pp. 329-332.
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Zhang and T. E. Darcie, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (IEEE, 2006), paper OWG1.
  10. Q. Wang and J. P. Yao, J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 3626 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Zeng and J. P. Yao, Proc. SPIE 5971, 59712B (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Wang, F. Zeng, and J. P. Yao, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2176 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

X. J. Meng and A. Karim, Fiber Integr. Opt. 25, 161 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

F. Zeng and J. P. Yao, Proc. SPIE 5971, 59712B (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, F. Zeng, and J. P. Yao, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2176 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. B. Waterhouse, D. Siveco, A. Y. Cho, G. Ghione, and M. C. Wu, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1956 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. C. Lindsay, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1194 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

L. T. Nichols, K. J. Williams, and R. D. Esman, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1384 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

R. D. Esman and K. J. Williams, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. H. Schaffner and W. B. Bridges, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 3 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

S. Yamamoto, N. Edagawa, H. Taga, Y. Yoshida, and H. Wakabayashi, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1716 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bridges, W. B.

J. H. Schaffner and W. B. Bridges, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 3 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bull, J. D.

T. E. Darcie, A. Moye, P. F. Driessen, J. D. Bull, H. Kato, and N. A. F. Jaeger, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (Seoul, South Korea, 2005), pp. 329-332.
[CrossRef]

Cappelluti, F.

S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. B. Waterhouse, D. Siveco, A. Y. Cho, G. Ghione, and M. C. Wu, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1956 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. B. Waterhouse, D. Siveco, A. Y. Cho, G. Ghione, and M. C. Wu, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1956 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Darcie, T. E.

J. Zhang and T. E. Darcie, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (IEEE, 2006), paper OWG1.

T. E. Darcie, A. Moye, P. F. Driessen, J. D. Bull, H. Kato, and N. A. F. Jaeger, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (Seoul, South Korea, 2005), pp. 329-332.
[CrossRef]

Driessen, P. F.

T. E. Darcie, A. Moye, P. F. Driessen, J. D. Bull, H. Kato, and N. A. F. Jaeger, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (Seoul, South Korea, 2005), pp. 329-332.
[CrossRef]

Edagawa, N.

S. Yamamoto, N. Edagawa, H. Taga, Y. Yoshida, and H. Wakabayashi, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1716 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Esman, R. D.

L. T. Nichols, K. J. Williams, and R. D. Esman, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1384 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Esman and K. J. Williams, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ghione, G.

S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. B. Waterhouse, D. Siveco, A. Y. Cho, G. Ghione, and M. C. Wu, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1956 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jaeger, N. A. F.

T. E. Darcie, A. Moye, P. F. Driessen, J. D. Bull, H. Kato, and N. A. F. Jaeger, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (Seoul, South Korea, 2005), pp. 329-332.
[CrossRef]

Jung, T.

S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. B. Waterhouse, D. Siveco, A. Y. Cho, G. Ghione, and M. C. Wu, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1956 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Karim, A.

X. J. Meng and A. Karim, Fiber Integr. Opt. 25, 161 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kato, H.

T. E. Darcie, A. Moye, P. F. Driessen, J. D. Bull, H. Kato, and N. A. F. Jaeger, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (Seoul, South Korea, 2005), pp. 329-332.
[CrossRef]

Lindsay, A. C.

A. C. Lindsay, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1194 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mathai, S.

S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. B. Waterhouse, D. Siveco, A. Y. Cho, G. Ghione, and M. C. Wu, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1956 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meng, X. J.

X. J. Meng and A. Karim, Fiber Integr. Opt. 25, 161 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moye, A.

T. E. Darcie, A. Moye, P. F. Driessen, J. D. Bull, H. Kato, and N. A. F. Jaeger, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (Seoul, South Korea, 2005), pp. 329-332.
[CrossRef]

Nichols, L. T.

L. T. Nichols, K. J. Williams, and R. D. Esman, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1384 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Novak, D.

S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. B. Waterhouse, D. Siveco, A. Y. Cho, G. Ghione, and M. C. Wu, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1956 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schaffner, J. H.

J. H. Schaffner and W. B. Bridges, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 3 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Siveco, D.

S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. B. Waterhouse, D. Siveco, A. Y. Cho, G. Ghione, and M. C. Wu, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1956 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Taga, H.

S. Yamamoto, N. Edagawa, H. Taga, Y. Yoshida, and H. Wakabayashi, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1716 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wakabayashi, H.

S. Yamamoto, N. Edagawa, H. Taga, Y. Yoshida, and H. Wakabayashi, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1716 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, F. Zeng, and J. P. Yao, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2176 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

Waterhouse, R. B.

S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. B. Waterhouse, D. Siveco, A. Y. Cho, G. Ghione, and M. C. Wu, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1956 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Williams, K. J.

L. T. Nichols, K. J. Williams, and R. D. Esman, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1384 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Esman and K. J. Williams, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. C.

S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. B. Waterhouse, D. Siveco, A. Y. Cho, G. Ghione, and M. C. Wu, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1956 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, S.

S. Yamamoto, N. Edagawa, H. Taga, Y. Yoshida, and H. Wakabayashi, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1716 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J. P.

Q. Wang and J. P. Yao, J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 3626 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Zeng and J. P. Yao, Proc. SPIE 5971, 59712B (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, F. Zeng, and J. P. Yao, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2176 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, Y.

S. Yamamoto, N. Edagawa, H. Taga, Y. Yoshida, and H. Wakabayashi, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1716 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, F.

F. Zeng and J. P. Yao, Proc. SPIE 5971, 59712B (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, F. Zeng, and J. P. Yao, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2176 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang and T. E. Darcie, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (IEEE, 2006), paper OWG1.

Fiber Integr. Opt. (1)

X. J. Meng and A. Karim, Fiber Integr. Opt. 25, 161 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

R. D. Esman and K. J. Williams, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, F. Zeng, and J. P. Yao, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2176 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (3)

S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. B. Waterhouse, D. Siveco, A. Y. Cho, G. Ghione, and M. C. Wu, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1956 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Nichols, K. J. Williams, and R. D. Esman, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1384 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Lindsay, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1194 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. H. Schaffner and W. B. Bridges, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 3 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Yamamoto, N. Edagawa, H. Taga, Y. Yoshida, and H. Wakabayashi, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1716 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang and J. P. Yao, J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 3626 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

F. Zeng and J. P. Yao, Proc. SPIE 5971, 59712B (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

T. E. Darcie, A. Moye, P. F. Driessen, J. D. Bull, H. Kato, and N. A. F. Jaeger, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (Seoul, South Korea, 2005), pp. 329-332.
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang and T. E. Darcie, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (IEEE, 2006), paper OWG1.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photonic microwave bandpass filter. ESA, electrical spectrum analyzer; OC, optical circulator. Other abbreviations are defined in text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflection spectrum of an ideal FBG.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dynamic range of a lowpass filter with the optical carriers located at the top of the FBG reflection spectra. (a) Frequency response, (b) dynamic range.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dynamic range of a bandpass filter with the optical carriers located at the opposite slopes of the FBG reflection spectra. (a) Frequency response, (b) dynamic range.

Equations (3)

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n s = 2 q I 0 B ,
n RIN = I 0 2 B ( RIN ) ,
r ( t ) { K 2 ( ω c ω 0 ) 2 + 2 K 2 ( ω c ω 0 ) β PM f ( t ) , ( ω 0 < ω c < ω 1 ) 0 , ( ω 1 < ω c < ω 2 ) K 2 ( ω 3 ω c ) 2 2 K 2 ( ω 3 ω c ) β PM f ( t ) , ( ω 2 < ω c < ω 3 ) , }

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