Abstract

We report a diffraction-based, label-free biosensor on the surface of a planar optical waveguide. By selectively immobilizing proteins on an optical waveguide, the proteins can form the ridge/valley of a latent image optical grating. Binding events with patterned surface proteins dynamically increase grating height and cause an increase in light coupling out of the waveguide. We demonstrate the efficacy of this strategy for protein detection and present the design and fabrication of a device.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. B. Luppa, L. J. Sokoll, and D. W. Chan, Clin. Chim. Acta 314, 1 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. A. Cooper, Nat. Rev. Drug Discovery 1, 515 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, Sens. Actuators A 4, 299 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Fritz, M. K. Baller, H. P. Lang, H. Rothuizen, P. Vettiger, E. Meyer, H. J. Guntherodt, C. Gerber, and J. K. Gimzewski, Science 288, 316 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. M. Nellen, K. Tiefenthaler, and W. Lukosz, Sens. Actuator A 15, 285 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Tiefenthaler and W. Lukosz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 209 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Wiki and R. E. Kunz, Opt. Lett. 25, 463 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Nakanishi, H. Muguruma, and I. Karube, Anal. Chem. 68, 1695 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. G. Tsay, C. I. Lin, J. Lee, E. K. Gustafson, R. Appelqvist, P. Magginetti, R. Norton, N. Teng, and D. Charlton, Clin. Chem. 37, 1502 (1991).
    [PubMed]
  10. J. B. Goh, R. W. Loo, R. A. McAloney, and M. C. Goh, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 374, 54 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. B. Goh, P. L. Tam, R. W. Loo, and M. C. Goh, Anal. Biochem. 313, 262 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. B. Goh, R. W. Loo, and M. C. Goh, Sens. Actuators B 106, 243 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. Borisenko, W. Hu, P. Tam, I. Chen I, J. F. Houle, and W. Ausserer, Clin. Chem. 52, 2168 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Tamir and S. T. Peng, Appl. Phys. 14, 235 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Marcuse, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 113 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Schift, L. J. Heyderman, C. Padeste, and J. Gobrecht, Microelectron. Eng. 61-62, 423 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. F. Mooney, A. J. Hunt, J. R. McIntosh, C. A. Liberko, D. M. Walba, and C. T. Rogers, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 12,287 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. L. Christman, V. D. Enriquez, and H. D. Maynard, Soft Matter 2, 928 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. L. Chang, G. Acharya, and C. A. Savran, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233901 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

C. L. Chang, G. Acharya, and C. A. Savran, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

K. L. Christman, V. D. Enriquez, and H. D. Maynard, Soft Matter 2, 928 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Borisenko, W. Hu, P. Tam, I. Chen I, J. F. Houle, and W. Ausserer, Clin. Chem. 52, 2168 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. B. Goh, R. W. Loo, and M. C. Goh, Sens. Actuators B 106, 243 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. B. Goh, P. L. Tam, R. W. Loo, and M. C. Goh, Anal. Biochem. 313, 262 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

J. B. Goh, R. W. Loo, R. A. McAloney, and M. C. Goh, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 374, 54 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Schift, L. J. Heyderman, C. Padeste, and J. Gobrecht, Microelectron. Eng. 61-62, 423 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Cooper, Nat. Rev. Drug Discovery 1, 515 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

P. B. Luppa, L. J. Sokoll, and D. W. Chan, Clin. Chim. Acta 314, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

M. Wiki and R. E. Kunz, Opt. Lett. 25, 463 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Fritz, M. K. Baller, H. P. Lang, H. Rothuizen, P. Vettiger, E. Meyer, H. J. Guntherodt, C. Gerber, and J. K. Gimzewski, Science 288, 316 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

K. Nakanishi, H. Muguruma, and I. Karube, Anal. Chem. 68, 1695 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Mooney, A. J. Hunt, J. R. McIntosh, C. A. Liberko, D. M. Walba, and C. T. Rogers, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 12,287 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

Y. G. Tsay, C. I. Lin, J. Lee, E. K. Gustafson, R. Appelqvist, P. Magginetti, R. Norton, N. Teng, and D. Charlton, Clin. Chem. 37, 1502 (1991).
[PubMed]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

P. M. Nellen, K. Tiefenthaler, and W. Lukosz, Sens. Actuator A 15, 285 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

D. Marcuse, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 113 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, Sens. Actuators A 4, 299 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

T. Tamir and S. T. Peng, Appl. Phys. 14, 235 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Acharya, G.

C. L. Chang, G. Acharya, and C. A. Savran, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appelqvist, R.

Y. G. Tsay, C. I. Lin, J. Lee, E. K. Gustafson, R. Appelqvist, P. Magginetti, R. Norton, N. Teng, and D. Charlton, Clin. Chem. 37, 1502 (1991).
[PubMed]

Ausserer, W.

V. Borisenko, W. Hu, P. Tam, I. Chen I, J. F. Houle, and W. Ausserer, Clin. Chem. 52, 2168 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baller, M. K.

J. Fritz, M. K. Baller, H. P. Lang, H. Rothuizen, P. Vettiger, E. Meyer, H. J. Guntherodt, C. Gerber, and J. K. Gimzewski, Science 288, 316 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borisenko, V.

V. Borisenko, W. Hu, P. Tam, I. Chen I, J. F. Houle, and W. Ausserer, Clin. Chem. 52, 2168 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chan, D. W.

P. B. Luppa, L. J. Sokoll, and D. W. Chan, Clin. Chim. Acta 314, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C. L.

C. L. Chang, G. Acharya, and C. A. Savran, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Charlton, D.

Y. G. Tsay, C. I. Lin, J. Lee, E. K. Gustafson, R. Appelqvist, P. Magginetti, R. Norton, N. Teng, and D. Charlton, Clin. Chem. 37, 1502 (1991).
[PubMed]

Chen, I.

V. Borisenko, W. Hu, P. Tam, I. Chen I, J. F. Houle, and W. Ausserer, Clin. Chem. 52, 2168 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Christman, K. L.

K. L. Christman, V. D. Enriquez, and H. D. Maynard, Soft Matter 2, 928 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, M. A.

M. A. Cooper, Nat. Rev. Drug Discovery 1, 515 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Enriquez, V. D.

K. L. Christman, V. D. Enriquez, and H. D. Maynard, Soft Matter 2, 928 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fritz, J.

J. Fritz, M. K. Baller, H. P. Lang, H. Rothuizen, P. Vettiger, E. Meyer, H. J. Guntherodt, C. Gerber, and J. K. Gimzewski, Science 288, 316 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerber, C.

J. Fritz, M. K. Baller, H. P. Lang, H. Rothuizen, P. Vettiger, E. Meyer, H. J. Guntherodt, C. Gerber, and J. K. Gimzewski, Science 288, 316 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gimzewski, J. K.

J. Fritz, M. K. Baller, H. P. Lang, H. Rothuizen, P. Vettiger, E. Meyer, H. J. Guntherodt, C. Gerber, and J. K. Gimzewski, Science 288, 316 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gobrecht, J.

H. Schift, L. J. Heyderman, C. Padeste, and J. Gobrecht, Microelectron. Eng. 61-62, 423 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goh, J. B.

J. B. Goh, R. W. Loo, and M. C. Goh, Sens. Actuators B 106, 243 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Goh, P. L. Tam, R. W. Loo, and M. C. Goh, Anal. Biochem. 313, 262 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Goh, R. W. Loo, R. A. McAloney, and M. C. Goh, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 374, 54 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goh, M. C.

J. B. Goh, R. W. Loo, and M. C. Goh, Sens. Actuators B 106, 243 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Goh, P. L. Tam, R. W. Loo, and M. C. Goh, Anal. Biochem. 313, 262 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Goh, R. W. Loo, R. A. McAloney, and M. C. Goh, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 374, 54 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guntherodt, H. J.

J. Fritz, M. K. Baller, H. P. Lang, H. Rothuizen, P. Vettiger, E. Meyer, H. J. Guntherodt, C. Gerber, and J. K. Gimzewski, Science 288, 316 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gustafson, E. K.

Y. G. Tsay, C. I. Lin, J. Lee, E. K. Gustafson, R. Appelqvist, P. Magginetti, R. Norton, N. Teng, and D. Charlton, Clin. Chem. 37, 1502 (1991).
[PubMed]

Heyderman, L. J.

H. Schift, L. J. Heyderman, C. Padeste, and J. Gobrecht, Microelectron. Eng. 61-62, 423 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Houle, J. F.

V. Borisenko, W. Hu, P. Tam, I. Chen I, J. F. Houle, and W. Ausserer, Clin. Chem. 52, 2168 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, W.

V. Borisenko, W. Hu, P. Tam, I. Chen I, J. F. Houle, and W. Ausserer, Clin. Chem. 52, 2168 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, A. J.

J. F. Mooney, A. J. Hunt, J. R. McIntosh, C. A. Liberko, D. M. Walba, and C. T. Rogers, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 12,287 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Karube, I.

K. Nakanishi, H. Muguruma, and I. Karube, Anal. Chem. 68, 1695 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kunz, R. E.

Lang, H. P.

J. Fritz, M. K. Baller, H. P. Lang, H. Rothuizen, P. Vettiger, E. Meyer, H. J. Guntherodt, C. Gerber, and J. K. Gimzewski, Science 288, 316 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

Y. G. Tsay, C. I. Lin, J. Lee, E. K. Gustafson, R. Appelqvist, P. Magginetti, R. Norton, N. Teng, and D. Charlton, Clin. Chem. 37, 1502 (1991).
[PubMed]

Liberko, C. A.

J. F. Mooney, A. J. Hunt, J. R. McIntosh, C. A. Liberko, D. M. Walba, and C. T. Rogers, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 12,287 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liedberg, B.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, Sens. Actuators A 4, 299 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. I.

Y. G. Tsay, C. I. Lin, J. Lee, E. K. Gustafson, R. Appelqvist, P. Magginetti, R. Norton, N. Teng, and D. Charlton, Clin. Chem. 37, 1502 (1991).
[PubMed]

Loo, R. W.

J. B. Goh, R. W. Loo, and M. C. Goh, Sens. Actuators B 106, 243 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Goh, P. L. Tam, R. W. Loo, and M. C. Goh, Anal. Biochem. 313, 262 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Goh, R. W. Loo, R. A. McAloney, and M. C. Goh, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 374, 54 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lukosz, W.

K. Tiefenthaler and W. Lukosz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 209 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Nellen, K. Tiefenthaler, and W. Lukosz, Sens. Actuator A 15, 285 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lundstrom, I.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, Sens. Actuators A 4, 299 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Luppa, P. B.

P. B. Luppa, L. J. Sokoll, and D. W. Chan, Clin. Chim. Acta 314, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magginetti, P.

Y. G. Tsay, C. I. Lin, J. Lee, E. K. Gustafson, R. Appelqvist, P. Magginetti, R. Norton, N. Teng, and D. Charlton, Clin. Chem. 37, 1502 (1991).
[PubMed]

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 113 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Maynard, H. D.

K. L. Christman, V. D. Enriquez, and H. D. Maynard, Soft Matter 2, 928 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McAloney, R. A.

J. B. Goh, R. W. Loo, R. A. McAloney, and M. C. Goh, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 374, 54 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McIntosh, J. R.

J. F. Mooney, A. J. Hunt, J. R. McIntosh, C. A. Liberko, D. M. Walba, and C. T. Rogers, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 12,287 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, E.

J. Fritz, M. K. Baller, H. P. Lang, H. Rothuizen, P. Vettiger, E. Meyer, H. J. Guntherodt, C. Gerber, and J. K. Gimzewski, Science 288, 316 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mooney, J. F.

J. F. Mooney, A. J. Hunt, J. R. McIntosh, C. A. Liberko, D. M. Walba, and C. T. Rogers, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 12,287 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Muguruma, H.

K. Nakanishi, H. Muguruma, and I. Karube, Anal. Chem. 68, 1695 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakanishi, K.

K. Nakanishi, H. Muguruma, and I. Karube, Anal. Chem. 68, 1695 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nellen, P. M.

P. M. Nellen, K. Tiefenthaler, and W. Lukosz, Sens. Actuator A 15, 285 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Norton, R.

Y. G. Tsay, C. I. Lin, J. Lee, E. K. Gustafson, R. Appelqvist, P. Magginetti, R. Norton, N. Teng, and D. Charlton, Clin. Chem. 37, 1502 (1991).
[PubMed]

Nylander, C.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, Sens. Actuators A 4, 299 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Padeste, C.

H. Schift, L. J. Heyderman, C. Padeste, and J. Gobrecht, Microelectron. Eng. 61-62, 423 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peng, S. T.

T. Tamir and S. T. Peng, Appl. Phys. 14, 235 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, C. T.

J. F. Mooney, A. J. Hunt, J. R. McIntosh, C. A. Liberko, D. M. Walba, and C. T. Rogers, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 12,287 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rothuizen, H.

J. Fritz, M. K. Baller, H. P. Lang, H. Rothuizen, P. Vettiger, E. Meyer, H. J. Guntherodt, C. Gerber, and J. K. Gimzewski, Science 288, 316 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Savran, C. A.

C. L. Chang, G. Acharya, and C. A. Savran, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schift, H.

H. Schift, L. J. Heyderman, C. Padeste, and J. Gobrecht, Microelectron. Eng. 61-62, 423 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sokoll, L. J.

P. B. Luppa, L. J. Sokoll, and D. W. Chan, Clin. Chim. Acta 314, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tam, P.

V. Borisenko, W. Hu, P. Tam, I. Chen I, J. F. Houle, and W. Ausserer, Clin. Chem. 52, 2168 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tam, P. L.

J. B. Goh, P. L. Tam, R. W. Loo, and M. C. Goh, Anal. Biochem. 313, 262 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamir, T.

T. Tamir and S. T. Peng, Appl. Phys. 14, 235 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Teng, N.

Y. G. Tsay, C. I. Lin, J. Lee, E. K. Gustafson, R. Appelqvist, P. Magginetti, R. Norton, N. Teng, and D. Charlton, Clin. Chem. 37, 1502 (1991).
[PubMed]

Tiefenthaler, K.

K. Tiefenthaler and W. Lukosz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 209 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Nellen, K. Tiefenthaler, and W. Lukosz, Sens. Actuator A 15, 285 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tsay, Y. G.

Y. G. Tsay, C. I. Lin, J. Lee, E. K. Gustafson, R. Appelqvist, P. Magginetti, R. Norton, N. Teng, and D. Charlton, Clin. Chem. 37, 1502 (1991).
[PubMed]

Vettiger, P.

J. Fritz, M. K. Baller, H. P. Lang, H. Rothuizen, P. Vettiger, E. Meyer, H. J. Guntherodt, C. Gerber, and J. K. Gimzewski, Science 288, 316 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walba, D. M.

J. F. Mooney, A. J. Hunt, J. R. McIntosh, C. A. Liberko, D. M. Walba, and C. T. Rogers, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 12,287 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wiki, M.

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

J. B. Goh, R. W. Loo, R. A. McAloney, and M. C. Goh, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 374, 54 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Biochem. (1)

J. B. Goh, P. L. Tam, R. W. Loo, and M. C. Goh, Anal. Biochem. 313, 262 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

K. Nakanishi, H. Muguruma, and I. Karube, Anal. Chem. 68, 1695 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Tamir and S. T. Peng, Appl. Phys. 14, 235 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. L. Chang, G. Acharya, and C. A. Savran, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Clin. Chem. (2)

V. Borisenko, W. Hu, P. Tam, I. Chen I, J. F. Houle, and W. Ausserer, Clin. Chem. 52, 2168 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Tsay, C. I. Lin, J. Lee, E. K. Gustafson, R. Appelqvist, P. Magginetti, R. Norton, N. Teng, and D. Charlton, Clin. Chem. 37, 1502 (1991).
[PubMed]

Clin. Chim. Acta (1)

P. B. Luppa, L. J. Sokoll, and D. W. Chan, Clin. Chim. Acta 314, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

D. Marcuse, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 113 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

H. Schift, L. J. Heyderman, C. Padeste, and J. Gobrecht, Microelectron. Eng. 61-62, 423 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Rev. Drug Discovery (1)

M. A. Cooper, Nat. Rev. Drug Discovery 1, 515 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

J. F. Mooney, A. J. Hunt, J. R. McIntosh, C. A. Liberko, D. M. Walba, and C. T. Rogers, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 12,287 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. Fritz, M. K. Baller, H. P. Lang, H. Rothuizen, P. Vettiger, E. Meyer, H. J. Guntherodt, C. Gerber, and J. K. Gimzewski, Science 288, 316 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuator A (1)

P. M. Nellen, K. Tiefenthaler, and W. Lukosz, Sens. Actuator A 15, 285 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A (1)

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, Sens. Actuators A 4, 299 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (1)

J. B. Goh, R. W. Loo, and M. C. Goh, Sens. Actuators B 106, 243 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Soft Matter (1)

K. L. Christman, V. D. Enriquez, and H. D. Maynard, Soft Matter 2, 928 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Grating coupler, (b) diffraction-based biosensors: (1) angular interrogation grating coupler biosensor, and binding events change N and θ; (2) free-space diffraction biosensor, and binding events change h g and I n ; (3) proposed biosensor, and binding events change h g and I n .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Device fabrication process: (1) GOPS treatment, (2) E-beam lithography and TFS vapor deposition, (3) Lift-off PMMA. (b) Testing scheme.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Protein-binding experiment data: (a) the response curve for the 100 μ g ml anti-goat IgG binding experiment, (b) response curves for different concentration and control experiments. Only binding steps are shown.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) AFM and (b) SEM images for samples after experiments.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N = n a sin θ + m λ Λ .
α λ = 2 ( n f 2 N 2 ) ( n r 2 n a 2 ) 2 N ( n f 2 n a 2 ) Λ t eff ( t g λ ) 2 ( TE modes ) .
S = I grating I background .

Metrics