Endoscopic imaging in tubular structures, such as the tracheobronchial tree, could benefit from imaging optics with an extended depth of focus (DOF) to accommodate the varying sizes of tubular structures across patients and along the tree within the same patient. Yet the extended DOF needs to be accomplished without sacrificing resolution while maintaining sufficient sensitivity and speed of imaging. In this Letter, we report on the measured resolution and sensitivity achieved with a custom-made micro-optic axicon lens designed to theoretically achieve an 8mm DOF. A measured invariant resolution of 8μm is demonstrated across a 4mm measured DOF using the micro-optic axicon while achieving an invariant sensitivity of 80dB with a 25mW input power. Double-pass Bessel beam spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with an axicon micro-optic lens (i.e., <1mm in diameter) is, for the first time to our knowledge, demonstrated in a biological sample demonstrating invariant resolution and signal-to-noise ratio across a 4mm measured DOF, which is compared to Gaussian beam imaging.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

2002 (1)

1954 (1)

Akcay, C.

Bachmann, A.

Brenner, M.

Chakrabarti, R.

Chen, Z.

Cheong, K.

Clarkson, E.

Delemos, T.

Ding, Z.

Ferris, R.

Guo, S.

Lasser, T.

Lee, K.

Leitgeb, R.

McLeod, J.

Meemon, P.

Mukai, D.

Murali, S.

Nelson, J.

O'Daniel, J.

Ren, H.

Rolland, J.

Steinmann, L.

Villiger, M.

Xie, T.

Zhao, Y.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Measured lateral resolution over focal range parameter d using either a micro-optic axicon of 170° apex angle illuminated by a 600 μ m collimated beam or an 8 mm focal length lens operating at a NA of 0.037. Point A corresponds to the focus depth associated with the rounded apex of the axicon lens. (b) Illumination efficiencies versus d, (c) setup to measure collection efficiencies, (d) measured collection efficiencies versus d, (e) measured system sensitivities versus d.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

1 mm × 1 mm SD-OCT images of an African frog (Xenopus laevis) tadpole located at various d values acquired using a 600 μ m effective diameter axicon micro-optic lens (top row) and a 0.037 NA conventional lens (bottom row).