Abstract

The technique, nanoparticles-induced vertical alignment (NIVA), was applied to fabricate a guest-host liquid crystal display (GH-LCD) without conventional alignment layers. The GH-LCD produced by NIVA exhibited a high reflectance of 59% in the voltage-off state and a low threshold voltage of 2.1Vrms. NIVA is very suitable to be applied for fabricating a plastic LCD requiring a low temperature process, and a flexible timepiece by using NIVA was demonstrated.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang, Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 2001).
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    [CrossRef]
  4. Y.-H. Lin, J.-M. Yang, Y.-R. Lin, S.-C. Jeng, and C.-C. Liao, Opt. Express 16, 1777 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, X. Liang, and S. T. Wu, J. Disp. Technol. 1, 230 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhou, and S. T. Wu, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 371 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061112 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C.-W. Kuo, S.-C. Jeng, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141103 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Cognard, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Suppl. Ser. 1, 1 (1982).
  10. S.-W. Suh, S. T. Shin, and S.-D. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2819 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. S. Patel and G. B. Cohen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3564 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Lueder, Liquid Crystal Displays: Addressing Schemes and Electro-Optical Effects (Wiley, 2001).

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Kuo, S.-C. Jeng, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhou, and S. T. Wu, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 371 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, X. Liang, and S. T. Wu, J. Disp. Technol. 1, 230 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

S.-W. Suh, S. T. Shin, and S.-D. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2819 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Patel and G. B. Cohen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3564 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

J. Cognard, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Suppl. Ser. 1, 1 (1982).

1979 (1)

T. Uchida, H. Seki, C. Shishido, and M. Wada, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 26, 1373 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

G. H. Heilmeier and L. A. Zanoni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 91 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Cognard, J.

J. Cognard, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Suppl. Ser. 1, 1 (1982).

Cohen, G. B.

J. S. Patel and G. B. Cohen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3564 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gauza, S.

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhou, and S. T. Wu, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 371 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heilmeier, G. H.

G. H. Heilmeier and L. A. Zanoni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 91 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Jeng, S.-C.

Y.-H. Lin, J.-M. Yang, Y.-R. Lin, S.-C. Jeng, and C.-C. Liao, Opt. Express 16, 1777 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-W. Kuo, S.-C. Jeng, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C.-W.

S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Kuo, S.-C. Jeng, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-D.

S.-W. Suh, S. T. Shin, and S.-D. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2819 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liang, X.

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, X. Liang, and S. T. Wu, J. Disp. Technol. 1, 230 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C.-C.

Y.-H. Lin, J.-M. Yang, Y.-R. Lin, S.-C. Jeng, and C.-C. Liao, Opt. Express 16, 1777 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-W. Kuo, S.-C. Jeng, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. H.

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhou, and S. T. Wu, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 371 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, X. Liang, and S. T. Wu, J. Disp. Technol. 1, 230 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.-H.

Lin, Y.-R.

Lueder, E.

E. Lueder, Liquid Crystal Displays: Addressing Schemes and Electro-Optical Effects (Wiley, 2001).

Patel, J. S.

J. S. Patel and G. B. Cohen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3564 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H.

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhou, and S. T. Wu, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 371 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, X. Liang, and S. T. Wu, J. Disp. Technol. 1, 230 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Seki, H.

T. Uchida, H. Seki, C. Shishido, and M. Wada, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 26, 1373 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Shin, S. T.

S.-W. Suh, S. T. Shin, and S.-D. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2819 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shishido, C.

T. Uchida, H. Seki, C. Shishido, and M. Wada, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 26, 1373 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Suh, S.-W.

S.-W. Suh, S. T. Shin, and S.-D. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2819 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, T.

T. Uchida, H. Seki, C. Shishido, and M. Wada, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 26, 1373 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wada, M.

T. Uchida, H. Seki, C. Shishido, and M. Wada, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 26, 1373 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.-L.

C.-W. Kuo, S.-C. Jeng, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhou, and S. T. Wu, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 371 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, X. Liang, and S. T. Wu, J. Disp. Technol. 1, 230 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang, Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 2001).

Wu, Y. H.

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhou, and S. T. Wu, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 371 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, X. Liang, and S. T. Wu, J. Disp. Technol. 1, 230 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D. K.

S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang, Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 2001).

Yang, J.-M.

Zanoni, L. A.

G. H. Heilmeier and L. A. Zanoni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 91 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhou, and S. T. Wu, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 371 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Kuo, S.-C. Jeng, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Suh, S. T. Shin, and S.-D. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2819 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Patel and G. B. Cohen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3564 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Heilmeier and L. A. Zanoni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 91 (1968).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

T. Uchida, H. Seki, C. Shishido, and M. Wada, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 26, 1373 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, X. Liang, and S. T. Wu, J. Disp. Technol. 1, 230 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhou, and S. T. Wu, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 371 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Suppl. Ser. (1)

J. Cognard, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Suppl. Ser. 1, 1 (1982).

Opt. Express (1)

Other (2)

S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang, Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 2001).

E. Lueder, Liquid Crystal Displays: Addressing Schemes and Electro-Optical Effects (Wiley, 2001).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photographs of the NIVA-LC reference cell observed by a polarizing OM. (a) V < V th , (b) V > V th .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photographs of a NIVA-GH-LC cell operated in the (a) transparent and (b) absorptive states.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Multidomain structures of NIVA-GH-LC cell observed by optical microscopy with one polarizer placed between the optical microscopy and the NIVA-GH-LC cell. (a) Photographs and (b) schematic representations of multidomain structures in the absorptive state.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Voltage-dependent reflectance of the NIVA-GH-LC cell.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A NIVA-GH-LC flexible timepiece with 1 wt. % dye dopant operated in the off and on states at various bending curvatures. (a) Off state, (b) on state, (c) off state under bending, (d) on state under bending.

Equations (4)

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γ S < γ LC homeotropic alignment ,
γ S > γ LC parallel alignment ,
T rise = η d 2 π 2 K 33 ( Δ ε π 2 K 33 V 2 1 ) 1 ,
T decay = η d 2 π 2 K 33 ,

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