Abstract

We report on a novel optofluidic system consisting of a silica-based 1D photonic crystal, integrated planar waveguides, and electrically insulated fluidic channels. An array of pillars in a microfluidic channel designed for electrochromatography is used as a resonator for on-column label-free refractive index detection. The resonator was fabricated in a silicon oxynitride platform, to support electro-osmotic flow, and operated at λ=1.55μm. Different aqueous solutions of ethanol with refractive indices ranging from n=1.3330 to 1.3616 were pumped into the column/resonator, and the transmission spectra were recorded. Linear shifts of the resonant wavelengths yielded a maximum sensitivity of ΔλΔn=480nm/RIU (refractive index unit), and a minimum difference of Δn=0.007 RIU was measured.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

N. A. Mortensen, S. Xiao, and J. Pedersen, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Sumetsky, R. S. Windeler, Y. Dulashko, and X. Fan, Opt. Express 15, 14376 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Gustafsson, K. B. Mogensen, P. D. Ohlsson, Y. Liu, S. C. Jacobson, and J. P. Kutter, J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 055021 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. M. White and X. Fan, Opt. Express 16, 1020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

W. De Malsche, H. Eghbali, D. Clicq, J. Vangelooven, H. Gardeniers, and G. Desmet, Anal. Chem. 79, 5915 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, Opt. Lett. 32, 3080 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

C. Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 134 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Gersborg-Hansen and A. Kristensen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 103518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Erickson, T. Rockwood, T. Emery, A. Scherer, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Lett. 31, 59 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. V. Lambeck, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, R93 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. Ymeti, J. S. Kanger, J. Greve, G. A. J. Besselink, P. V. Lambeck, R. Wijn, and R. G. Heideman, Biosens. Bioelectron. 20, 1417 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Adams, G. A. DeRose, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 3168 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

R. N. Rao and V. Nagaraju, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 33, 335 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

H. Nakanishi, T. Nishimoto, A. Arai, H. Abe, M. Kanai, Y. Fujiyama, and T. Yoshida, Electrophoresis 22, 230 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

R. G. Heideman and P. V. Lambeck, Sens. Actuators B 61, 100 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Abe, H.

H. Nakanishi, T. Nishimoto, A. Arai, H. Abe, M. Kanai, Y. Fujiyama, and T. Yoshida, Electrophoresis 22, 230 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adams, M.

M. Adams, G. A. DeRose, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 3168 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arai, A.

H. Nakanishi, T. Nishimoto, A. Arai, H. Abe, M. Kanai, Y. Fujiyama, and T. Yoshida, Electrophoresis 22, 230 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrios, C. A.

Besselink, G. A. J.

A. Ymeti, J. S. Kanger, J. Greve, G. A. J. Besselink, P. V. Lambeck, R. Wijn, and R. G. Heideman, Biosens. Bioelectron. 20, 1417 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Casquel, R.

Chao, C. Y.

C. Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 134 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chow, E.

Clicq, D.

W. De Malsche, H. Eghbali, D. Clicq, J. Vangelooven, H. Gardeniers, and G. Desmet, Anal. Chem. 79, 5915 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coldren, L. A.

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley, 1995).

Corzine, S. W.

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley, 1995).

De Malsche, W.

W. De Malsche, H. Eghbali, D. Clicq, J. Vangelooven, H. Gardeniers, and G. Desmet, Anal. Chem. 79, 5915 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeRose, G. A.

M. Adams, G. A. DeRose, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 3168 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Desmet, G.

W. De Malsche, H. Eghbali, D. Clicq, J. Vangelooven, H. Gardeniers, and G. Desmet, Anal. Chem. 79, 5915 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dulashko, Y.

Eghbali, H.

W. De Malsche, H. Eghbali, D. Clicq, J. Vangelooven, H. Gardeniers, and G. Desmet, Anal. Chem. 79, 5915 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emery, T.

Erickson, D.

Fan, X.

Fintschenko, Y.

J. P. Kutter, and Y. Fintschenko, Separation Methods in Microanalytical Systems (CRC Press, Taylor & Francis, 2006).

Fujiyama, Y.

H. Nakanishi, T. Nishimoto, A. Arai, H. Abe, M. Kanai, Y. Fujiyama, and T. Yoshida, Electrophoresis 22, 230 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fung, W.

C. Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 134 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gardeniers, H.

W. De Malsche, H. Eghbali, D. Clicq, J. Vangelooven, H. Gardeniers, and G. Desmet, Anal. Chem. 79, 5915 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gersborg-Hansen, M.

M. Gersborg-Hansen and A. Kristensen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 103518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Girolami, G.

Greve, J.

A. Ymeti, J. S. Kanger, J. Greve, G. A. J. Besselink, P. V. Lambeck, R. Wijn, and R. G. Heideman, Biosens. Bioelectron. 20, 1417 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Griol, A.

Grot, A.

Guo, L. J.

C. Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 134 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gustafsson, O.

O. Gustafsson, K. B. Mogensen, P. D. Ohlsson, Y. Liu, S. C. Jacobson, and J. P. Kutter, J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 055021 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gylfason, K. B.

Heideman, R. G.

A. Ymeti, J. S. Kanger, J. Greve, G. A. J. Besselink, P. V. Lambeck, R. Wijn, and R. G. Heideman, Biosens. Bioelectron. 20, 1417 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Heideman and P. V. Lambeck, Sens. Actuators B 61, 100 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Holgado, M.

Jacobson, S. C.

O. Gustafsson, K. B. Mogensen, P. D. Ohlsson, Y. Liu, S. C. Jacobson, and J. P. Kutter, J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 055021 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kanai, M.

H. Nakanishi, T. Nishimoto, A. Arai, H. Abe, M. Kanai, Y. Fujiyama, and T. Yoshida, Electrophoresis 22, 230 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanger, J. S.

A. Ymeti, J. S. Kanger, J. Greve, G. A. J. Besselink, P. V. Lambeck, R. Wijn, and R. G. Heideman, Biosens. Bioelectron. 20, 1417 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, A.

M. Gersborg-Hansen and A. Kristensen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 103518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kutter, J. P.

O. Gustafsson, K. B. Mogensen, P. D. Ohlsson, Y. Liu, S. C. Jacobson, and J. P. Kutter, J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 055021 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Kutter, and Y. Fintschenko, Separation Methods in Microanalytical Systems (CRC Press, Taylor & Francis, 2006).

Lambeck, P. V.

P. V. Lambeck, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, R93 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Ymeti, J. S. Kanger, J. Greve, G. A. J. Besselink, P. V. Lambeck, R. Wijn, and R. G. Heideman, Biosens. Bioelectron. 20, 1417 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Heideman and P. V. Lambeck, Sens. Actuators B 61, 100 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

O. Gustafsson, K. B. Mogensen, P. D. Ohlsson, Y. Liu, S. C. Jacobson, and J. P. Kutter, J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 055021 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Loncar, M.

M. Adams, G. A. DeRose, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 3168 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mirkarimi, L. W.

Mogensen, K. B.

O. Gustafsson, K. B. Mogensen, P. D. Ohlsson, Y. Liu, S. C. Jacobson, and J. P. Kutter, J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 055021 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mortensen, N. A.

N. A. Mortensen, S. Xiao, and J. Pedersen, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nagaraju, V.

R. N. Rao and V. Nagaraju, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 33, 335 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakanishi, H.

H. Nakanishi, T. Nishimoto, A. Arai, H. Abe, M. Kanai, Y. Fujiyama, and T. Yoshida, Electrophoresis 22, 230 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishimoto, T.

H. Nakanishi, T. Nishimoto, A. Arai, H. Abe, M. Kanai, Y. Fujiyama, and T. Yoshida, Electrophoresis 22, 230 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohlsson, P. D.

O. Gustafsson, K. B. Mogensen, P. D. Ohlsson, Y. Liu, S. C. Jacobson, and J. P. Kutter, J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 055021 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, J.

N. A. Mortensen, S. Xiao, and J. Pedersen, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

Rao, R. N.

R. N. Rao and V. Nagaraju, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 33, 335 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rockwood, T.

Sánchez, B.

Scherer, A.

D. Erickson, T. Rockwood, T. Emery, A. Scherer, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Lett. 31, 59 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Adams, G. A. DeRose, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 3168 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sigalas, M.

Sohlström, H.

Sumetsky, M.

Vangelooven, J.

W. De Malsche, H. Eghbali, D. Clicq, J. Vangelooven, H. Gardeniers, and G. Desmet, Anal. Chem. 79, 5915 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, I. M.

Wijn, R.

A. Ymeti, J. S. Kanger, J. Greve, G. A. J. Besselink, P. V. Lambeck, R. Wijn, and R. G. Heideman, Biosens. Bioelectron. 20, 1417 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

Xiao, S.

N. A. Mortensen, S. Xiao, and J. Pedersen, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ymeti, A.

A. Ymeti, J. S. Kanger, J. Greve, G. A. J. Besselink, P. V. Lambeck, R. Wijn, and R. G. Heideman, Biosens. Bioelectron. 20, 1417 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, T.

H. Nakanishi, T. Nishimoto, A. Arai, H. Abe, M. Kanai, Y. Fujiyama, and T. Yoshida, Electrophoresis 22, 230 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

W. De Malsche, H. Eghbali, D. Clicq, J. Vangelooven, H. Gardeniers, and G. Desmet, Anal. Chem. 79, 5915 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Gersborg-Hansen and A. Kristensen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 103518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

A. Ymeti, J. S. Kanger, J. Greve, G. A. J. Besselink, P. V. Lambeck, R. Wijn, and R. G. Heideman, Biosens. Bioelectron. 20, 1417 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electrophoresis (1)

H. Nakanishi, T. Nishimoto, A. Arai, H. Abe, M. Kanai, Y. Fujiyama, and T. Yoshida, Electrophoresis 22, 230 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 134 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

O. Gustafsson, K. B. Mogensen, P. D. Ohlsson, Y. Liu, S. C. Jacobson, and J. P. Kutter, J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 055021 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. (1)

R. N. Rao and V. Nagaraju, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 33, 335 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

M. Adams, G. A. DeRose, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 3168 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

P. V. Lambeck, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, R93 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Microfluid. Nanofluid. (1)

N. A. Mortensen, S. Xiao, and J. Pedersen, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Sens. Actuators B (1)

R. G. Heideman and P. V. Lambeck, Sens. Actuators B 61, 100 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley, 1995).

J. P. Kutter, and Y. Fintschenko, Separation Methods in Microanalytical Systems (CRC Press, Taylor & Francis, 2006).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning-electron-microscope image of an on-column 1D photonic crystal refractive index chemical sensor (top view). The resonator pitch was 5.0 μ m with a depth of 10 μ m . Infrared light was confined in the plane of the chip by 12 μ m wide and 3.2 μ m thick SiON waveguides.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated and experimental transmission spectra of a resonator made of nine pillars in a microfluidic channel filled with Milli-Q water with/without a-Si on the pillars.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Normalized transmission spectra of the 1D photonic crystal microfluidic channel (nine pillars) with four different aqueous solutions of ethanol—10%, 25%, and 50% (v/v) and Milli-Q water. (b) Resonant wavelength plotted as a function of refractive index (n). The error bars refer to fluctuations on the λ res after successive injections with different fluids.

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