Abstract

Rapid voltage-controlled phase modulation of cw terahertz (THz) radiation is demonstrated. By transmitting an infrared beam through a lithium niobate phase modulator the phase of the THz radiation, which is generated by the photomixing of two infrared beams, can be directly modulated through a 2π phase shift. The 100kHz modulation rate that is demonstrated with this technique is approximately 3 orders of magnitude faster than what can be achieved by mechanical scanning.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, and Z.-H. Michalopoulou, in Counter-Terrorism Detection Techniques of Explosives, JehudaYinon, ed. (Elsevier, 2007).
  2. T. Löffler, T. May, C. am Weg, A. Alcin, B. Hils, and H. G. Roskos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091111 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. I. Meshkov and F. C. De Lucia, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083103 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1325 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Xu and X.-C. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 29, 2082 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J.-Y. Lu, H.-H. Chang, L.-J. Chen, M.-C. Tien, and C.-K. Sun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2406 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Nahata, J. T. Yardley, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2524 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Loffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3003 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, J. Xu, K-I Lin, J-S Hwang, and X-C Zhang, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 293 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Bandyopadhyay, A. Stepanov, B. Schulkin, M. D. Federici, A. Sengupta, D. Gary, J. F. Federici, R. Barat, Z.-H. Michalopoulou, and D. Zimdars, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1168 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

T. Löffler, T. May, C. am Weg, A. Alcin, B. Hils, and H. G. Roskos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, J. Xu, K-I Lin, J-S Hwang, and X-C Zhang, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 293 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Lu, H.-H. Chang, L.-J. Chen, M.-C. Tien, and C.-K. Sun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Meshkov and F. C. De Lucia, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Loffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3003 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Nahata, J. T. Yardley, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2524 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Alcin, A.

T. Löffler, T. May, C. am Weg, A. Alcin, B. Hils, and H. G. Roskos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

am Weg, C.

T. Löffler, T. May, C. am Weg, A. Alcin, B. Hils, and H. G. Roskos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bandyopadhyay, A.

Barat, R.

A. Bandyopadhyay, A. Stepanov, B. Schulkin, M. D. Federici, A. Sengupta, D. Gary, J. F. Federici, R. Barat, Z.-H. Michalopoulou, and D. Zimdars, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1168 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, and Z.-H. Michalopoulou, in Counter-Terrorism Detection Techniques of Explosives, JehudaYinon, ed. (Elsevier, 2007).

Bauer, T.

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Loffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3003 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chan, W. L.

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H.-H.

J.-Y. Lu, H.-H. Chang, L.-J. Chen, M.-C. Tien, and C.-K. Sun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.-J.

J.-Y. Lu, H.-H. Chang, L.-J. Chen, M.-C. Tien, and C.-K. Sun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Czasch, S.

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Loffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3003 (2002).
[CrossRef]

De Lucia, F. C.

A. I. Meshkov and F. C. De Lucia, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Deibel, J.

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Federici, J. F.

A. Bandyopadhyay, A. Stepanov, B. Schulkin, M. D. Federici, A. Sengupta, D. Gary, J. F. Federici, R. Barat, Z.-H. Michalopoulou, and D. Zimdars, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1168 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, and Z.-H. Michalopoulou, in Counter-Terrorism Detection Techniques of Explosives, JehudaYinon, ed. (Elsevier, 2007).

Federici, M. D.

Gary, D.

A. Bandyopadhyay, A. Stepanov, B. Schulkin, M. D. Federici, A. Sengupta, D. Gary, J. F. Federici, R. Barat, Z.-H. Michalopoulou, and D. Zimdars, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1168 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, and Z.-H. Michalopoulou, in Counter-Terrorism Detection Techniques of Explosives, JehudaYinon, ed. (Elsevier, 2007).

Heinz, T. F.

A. Nahata, J. T. Yardley, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2524 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hils, B.

T. Löffler, T. May, C. am Weg, A. Alcin, B. Hils, and H. G. Roskos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J-S

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, J. Xu, K-I Lin, J-S Hwang, and X-C Zhang, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 293 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Karpowicz, N.

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, J. Xu, K-I Lin, J-S Hwang, and X-C Zhang, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 293 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leonhardt, R.

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Loffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3003 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, K-I

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, J. Xu, K-I Lin, J-S Hwang, and X-C Zhang, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 293 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Loffler, T.

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Loffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3003 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Löffler, T.

T. Löffler, T. May, C. am Weg, A. Alcin, B. Hils, and H. G. Roskos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Lu, H.-H. Chang, L.-J. Chen, M.-C. Tien, and C.-K. Sun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

May, T.

T. Löffler, T. May, C. am Weg, A. Alcin, B. Hils, and H. G. Roskos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meshkov, A. I.

A. I. Meshkov and F. C. De Lucia, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Michalopoulou, Z.-H.

A. Bandyopadhyay, A. Stepanov, B. Schulkin, M. D. Federici, A. Sengupta, D. Gary, J. F. Federici, R. Barat, Z.-H. Michalopoulou, and D. Zimdars, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1168 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, and Z.-H. Michalopoulou, in Counter-Terrorism Detection Techniques of Explosives, JehudaYinon, ed. (Elsevier, 2007).

Mittleman, D. M.

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nahata, A.

A. Nahata, J. T. Yardley, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2524 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Quast, H.

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Loffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3003 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roskos, H. G.

T. Löffler, T. May, C. am Weg, A. Alcin, B. Hils, and H. G. Roskos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Loffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3003 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schulkin, B.

Sengupta, A.

Siebert, K. J.

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Loffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3003 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, A.

Sun, C.-K.

J.-Y. Lu, H.-H. Chang, L.-J. Chen, M.-C. Tien, and C.-K. Sun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, M.

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Loffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3003 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tien, M.-C.

J.-Y. Lu, H.-H. Chang, L.-J. Chen, M.-C. Tien, and C.-K. Sun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, J. Xu, K-I Lin, J-S Hwang, and X-C Zhang, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 293 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu and X.-C. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 29, 2082 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yardley, J. T.

A. Nahata, J. T. Yardley, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2524 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

Zhang, X-C

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, J. Xu, K-I Lin, J-S Hwang, and X-C Zhang, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 293 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, H.

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, J. Xu, K-I Lin, J-S Hwang, and X-C Zhang, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 293 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zimdars, D.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

T. Löffler, T. May, C. am Weg, A. Alcin, B. Hils, and H. G. Roskos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata, J. T. Yardley, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2524 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Loffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3003 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J.-Y. Lu, H.-H. Chang, L.-J. Chen, M.-C. Tien, and C.-K. Sun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. I. Meshkov and F. C. De Lucia, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, J. Xu, K-I Lin, J-S Hwang, and X-C Zhang, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 293 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, and Z.-H. Michalopoulou, in Counter-Terrorism Detection Techniques of Explosives, JehudaYinon, ed. (Elsevier, 2007).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of fast phase modulation configuration. The half-wave plates are used to rotate the polarization of the laser beams parallel to the polarization axis of the optical fibers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

THz detector voltage output versus time as a function of applied voltage to the modulator. (a) The applied voltage is 20 and 160 V (middle and bottom waveforms, respectively). The sawtooth waveform (top) illustrates the timing of the modulator voltage. Waveforms are vertically offset for clarity. (b) THz detector output for a thin card inserted (solid curve) between the THz TX and RX of Fig. 1 and removed (dashed curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Rapid frequency tuning curves for the measured THz amplitude and phase in degrees (inset) over 3 GHz .

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