We have developed a multilevel interference lithography process to fabricate period gratings using light with a wavelength. In this process multiple grating levels patterned by interference lithography are overlaid and spatial–phase aligned to a common reference grating using interferometry. Each grating level is patterned with offset phase shifts and etched into a single layer to achieve spatial-frequency multiplication. The effect of the multilayer periodic structure on interference lithography is examined to optimize the fabrication process. This process presents a general scheme for overlaying periodic structures and can be used to fabricate more complex periodic structures.
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