Abstract

We report on the successful application of recently developed 2.3μm InP-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with a buried tunnel junction in a wavelength modulation spectroscopy measurement for carbon monoxide (CO) detection. The electrically pumped devices operate at room temperature under cw operation with stable single-mode emission and should allow for parts in 106 (ppm) level resolution measurement of CO with a standard optical setup.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Ortsiefer, G. Böhm, M. Grau, K. Windhorn, E. Röonneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, O. Dier, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 42, 640 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Böhm, M. Grau, O. Dier, K. Windhorn, E. Rönneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, R. Meyer, M. Ortsiefer, and M.-C. Amann, J. Cryst. Growth 301, 941 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J.-C. Nicolas, A. N. Baranov, Y. Cuminal, Y. Rouillard, and C. Alibert, Appl. Opt. 37, 7906 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Bachmann, T. Lim, K. Kashani-Shirazi, O. Dier, C. Lauer, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 44, 202 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Cerutti, A. Ducanchez, P. Grech, A. Garnache, and F. Genty, Electron. Lett. 44, 204 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Arndt, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2522 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Rothman, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

A. Bachmann, T. Lim, K. Kashani-Shirazi, O. Dier, C. Lauer, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 44, 202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Cerutti, A. Ducanchez, P. Grech, A. Garnache, and F. Genty, Electron. Lett. 44, 204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

G. Böhm, M. Grau, O. Dier, K. Windhorn, E. Rönneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, R. Meyer, M. Ortsiefer, and M.-C. Amann, J. Cryst. Growth 301, 941 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. Ortsiefer, G. Böhm, M. Grau, K. Windhorn, E. Röonneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, O. Dier, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 42, 640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

L. Rothman, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1965 (1)

R. Arndt, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2522 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Alibert, C.

Amann, M.-C.

A. Bachmann, T. Lim, K. Kashani-Shirazi, O. Dier, C. Lauer, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 44, 202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Böhm, M. Grau, O. Dier, K. Windhorn, E. Rönneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, R. Meyer, M. Ortsiefer, and M.-C. Amann, J. Cryst. Growth 301, 941 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Ortsiefer, G. Böhm, M. Grau, K. Windhorn, E. Röonneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, O. Dier, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 42, 640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arndt, R.

R. Arndt, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2522 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Bachmann, A.

A. Bachmann, T. Lim, K. Kashani-Shirazi, O. Dier, C. Lauer, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 44, 202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baranov, A. N.

Böhm, G.

G. Böhm, M. Grau, O. Dier, K. Windhorn, E. Rönneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, R. Meyer, M. Ortsiefer, and M.-C. Amann, J. Cryst. Growth 301, 941 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Ortsiefer, G. Böhm, M. Grau, K. Windhorn, E. Röonneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, O. Dier, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 42, 640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cerutti, L.

L. Cerutti, A. Ducanchez, P. Grech, A. Garnache, and F. Genty, Electron. Lett. 44, 204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cuminal, Y.

Dier, O.

A. Bachmann, T. Lim, K. Kashani-Shirazi, O. Dier, C. Lauer, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 44, 202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Böhm, M. Grau, O. Dier, K. Windhorn, E. Rönneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, R. Meyer, M. Ortsiefer, and M.-C. Amann, J. Cryst. Growth 301, 941 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Ortsiefer, G. Böhm, M. Grau, K. Windhorn, E. Röonneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, O. Dier, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 42, 640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ducanchez, A.

L. Cerutti, A. Ducanchez, P. Grech, A. Garnache, and F. Genty, Electron. Lett. 44, 204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Garnache, A.

L. Cerutti, A. Ducanchez, P. Grech, A. Garnache, and F. Genty, Electron. Lett. 44, 204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Genty, F.

L. Cerutti, A. Ducanchez, P. Grech, A. Garnache, and F. Genty, Electron. Lett. 44, 204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grau, M.

G. Böhm, M. Grau, O. Dier, K. Windhorn, E. Rönneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, R. Meyer, M. Ortsiefer, and M.-C. Amann, J. Cryst. Growth 301, 941 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Ortsiefer, G. Böhm, M. Grau, K. Windhorn, E. Röonneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, O. Dier, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 42, 640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grech, P.

L. Cerutti, A. Ducanchez, P. Grech, A. Garnache, and F. Genty, Electron. Lett. 44, 204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kashani-Shirazi, K.

A. Bachmann, T. Lim, K. Kashani-Shirazi, O. Dier, C. Lauer, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 44, 202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lauer, C.

A. Bachmann, T. Lim, K. Kashani-Shirazi, O. Dier, C. Lauer, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 44, 202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lim, T.

A. Bachmann, T. Lim, K. Kashani-Shirazi, O. Dier, C. Lauer, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 44, 202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, R.

G. Böhm, M. Grau, O. Dier, K. Windhorn, E. Rönneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, R. Meyer, M. Ortsiefer, and M.-C. Amann, J. Cryst. Growth 301, 941 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nicolas, J.-C.

Ortsiefer, M.

G. Böhm, M. Grau, O. Dier, K. Windhorn, E. Rönneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, R. Meyer, M. Ortsiefer, and M.-C. Amann, J. Cryst. Growth 301, 941 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Ortsiefer, G. Böhm, M. Grau, K. Windhorn, E. Röonneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, O. Dier, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 42, 640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rönneberg, E.

G. Böhm, M. Grau, O. Dier, K. Windhorn, E. Rönneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, R. Meyer, M. Ortsiefer, and M.-C. Amann, J. Cryst. Growth 301, 941 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Röonneberg, E.

M. Ortsiefer, G. Böhm, M. Grau, K. Windhorn, E. Röonneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, O. Dier, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 42, 640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rosskopf, J.

G. Böhm, M. Grau, O. Dier, K. Windhorn, E. Rönneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, R. Meyer, M. Ortsiefer, and M.-C. Amann, J. Cryst. Growth 301, 941 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Ortsiefer, G. Böhm, M. Grau, K. Windhorn, E. Röonneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, O. Dier, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 42, 640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L.

L. Rothman, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rouillard, Y.

Shau, R.

G. Böhm, M. Grau, O. Dier, K. Windhorn, E. Rönneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, R. Meyer, M. Ortsiefer, and M.-C. Amann, J. Cryst. Growth 301, 941 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Ortsiefer, G. Böhm, M. Grau, K. Windhorn, E. Röonneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, O. Dier, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 42, 640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Windhorn, K.

G. Böhm, M. Grau, O. Dier, K. Windhorn, E. Rönneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, R. Meyer, M. Ortsiefer, and M.-C. Amann, J. Cryst. Growth 301, 941 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Ortsiefer, G. Böhm, M. Grau, K. Windhorn, E. Röonneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, O. Dier, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 42, 640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (3)

A. Bachmann, T. Lim, K. Kashani-Shirazi, O. Dier, C. Lauer, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 44, 202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Cerutti, A. Ducanchez, P. Grech, A. Garnache, and F. Genty, Electron. Lett. 44, 204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Ortsiefer, G. Böhm, M. Grau, K. Windhorn, E. Röonneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, O. Dier, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 42, 640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Arndt, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2522 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

G. Böhm, M. Grau, O. Dier, K. Windhorn, E. Rönneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, R. Meyer, M. Ortsiefer, and M.-C. Amann, J. Cryst. Growth 301, 941 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (1)

L. Rothman, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measurement setup. The spectrum scan was realized by a T 0 = 4 s scan of the laser's heat-sink temperature T S , while a f = 10 kHz current modulation together with a lock-in amplifier was used to perform second-harmonic detection. PD, photodiode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photocurrent I ph for different heat-sink temperatures T S . The lower limit of 15 ° C was to avoid condensation on the windowless laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Second-harmonic spectrum of a single CO absorption line. The background was not subtracted but assumed to be linear and included in the curve fit model. The high fringe level is due to the window of the photodetector. The concentration is C CO = 11 ppm . Absorption path length: 40 cm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Second-harmonic spectrum measured with a temperature scan of the InP -based 2.3 μ m VCSEL. The background was measured separately and subtracted from the shown curve. The concentrations are C H 2 O = 1.1 vol % , C CH 4 = 80 ppm , and C CO = 9.5 ppm . Absorption path length: 40 cm .

Metrics