Abstract

Orientation-controlled anisotropic diffraction gratings are realized by interferometric exposure using composite materials of nematic liquid crystals (LCs) and LC diacrylate monomers. The anisotropic diffraction properties in volume gratings, which dominantly diffract p- or s-polarized light, are shown to be controlled by the rubbed directions of the alignment layers under the control of the photopolymerization temperature. Images of the fringe patterns observed by polarization microscopy show the effects of the alignment layers on the LC orientation during grating formation.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. Ono, A. Emoto, F. Takahashi, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Hasegawa, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1298 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. J. White, J. J. Koval, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. A. Vaia, S. Serak, V. Grozhik, N. Tabirian, and T. J. Bunning, Proc. SPIE 6654, 665403 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Gori, Opt. Lett. 24, 584 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. G. Cloutier, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 3371 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. J. Butler and M. S. Malcuit, Opt. Lett. 25, 420 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. E. Holmes and M. S. Malcuit, Phys. Rev. E 65, 066603 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, and T. J. Bunning, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 951 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. D. Olenik, M. Fally, and M. A. Ellabban, Phys. Rev. E 74, 021707 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Ogiwara, H. Kakiuchida, M. Tazawa, and H. Ono, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 46, 7341 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. W. Berreman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 1683 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Ono, A. Hatayama, A. Emoto, and N. Kawatsuki, Opt. Mater. 30, 248 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2007

T. J. White, J. J. Koval, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. A. Vaia, S. Serak, V. Grozhik, N. Tabirian, and T. J. Bunning, Proc. SPIE 6654, 665403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ogiwara, H. Kakiuchida, M. Tazawa, and H. Ono, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 46, 7341 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono, A. Hatayama, A. Emoto, and N. Kawatsuki, Opt. Mater. 30, 248 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

I. D. Olenik, M. Fally, and M. A. Ellabban, Phys. Rev. E 74, 021707 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. G. Cloutier, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 3371 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, and T. J. Bunning, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 951 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

H. Ono, A. Emoto, F. Takahashi, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Hasegawa, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. E. Holmes and M. S. Malcuit, Phys. Rev. E 65, 066603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

1972

D. W. Berreman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 1683 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Berreman, D. W.

D. W. Berreman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 1683 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T. J.

T. J. White, J. J. Koval, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. A. Vaia, S. Serak, V. Grozhik, N. Tabirian, and T. J. Bunning, Proc. SPIE 6654, 665403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, and T. J. Bunning, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 951 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Butler, J. J.

Cloutier, S. G.

S. G. Cloutier, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 3371 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ellabban, M. A.

I. D. Olenik, M. Fally, and M. A. Ellabban, Phys. Rev. E 74, 021707 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Emoto, A.

H. Ono, A. Hatayama, A. Emoto, and N. Kawatsuki, Opt. Mater. 30, 248 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono, A. Emoto, F. Takahashi, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Hasegawa, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fally, M.

I. D. Olenik, M. Fally, and M. A. Ellabban, Phys. Rev. E 74, 021707 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gori, F.

Grozhik, V.

T. J. White, J. J. Koval, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. A. Vaia, S. Serak, V. Grozhik, N. Tabirian, and T. J. Bunning, Proc. SPIE 6654, 665403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, T.

H. Ono, A. Emoto, F. Takahashi, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Hasegawa, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hatayama, A.

H. Ono, A. Hatayama, A. Emoto, and N. Kawatsuki, Opt. Mater. 30, 248 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, M. E.

M. E. Holmes and M. S. Malcuit, Phys. Rev. E 65, 066603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kakiuchida, H.

A. Ogiwara, H. Kakiuchida, M. Tazawa, and H. Ono, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 46, 7341 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kawatsuki, N.

H. Ono, A. Hatayama, A. Emoto, and N. Kawatsuki, Opt. Mater. 30, 248 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono, A. Emoto, F. Takahashi, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Hasegawa, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koval, J. J.

T. J. White, J. J. Koval, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. A. Vaia, S. Serak, V. Grozhik, N. Tabirian, and T. J. Bunning, Proc. SPIE 6654, 665403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Malcuit, M. S.

M. E. Holmes and M. S. Malcuit, Phys. Rev. E 65, 066603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Butler and M. S. Malcuit, Opt. Lett. 25, 420 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, L. V.

T. J. White, J. J. Koval, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. A. Vaia, S. Serak, V. Grozhik, N. Tabirian, and T. J. Bunning, Proc. SPIE 6654, 665403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, and T. J. Bunning, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 951 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ogiwara, A.

A. Ogiwara, H. Kakiuchida, M. Tazawa, and H. Ono, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 46, 7341 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Olenik, I. D.

I. D. Olenik, M. Fally, and M. A. Ellabban, Phys. Rev. E 74, 021707 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ono, H.

H. Ono, A. Hatayama, A. Emoto, and N. Kawatsuki, Opt. Mater. 30, 248 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ogiwara, H. Kakiuchida, M. Tazawa, and H. Ono, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 46, 7341 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono, A. Emoto, F. Takahashi, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Hasegawa, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Serak, S.

T. J. White, J. J. Koval, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. A. Vaia, S. Serak, V. Grozhik, N. Tabirian, and T. J. Bunning, Proc. SPIE 6654, 665403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R. L.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, and T. J. Bunning, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 951 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tabirian, N.

T. J. White, J. J. Koval, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. A. Vaia, S. Serak, V. Grozhik, N. Tabirian, and T. J. Bunning, Proc. SPIE 6654, 665403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, F.

H. Ono, A. Emoto, F. Takahashi, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Hasegawa, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tazawa, M.

A. Ogiwara, H. Kakiuchida, M. Tazawa, and H. Ono, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 46, 7341 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tondiglia, V. P.

T. J. White, J. J. Koval, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. A. Vaia, S. Serak, V. Grozhik, N. Tabirian, and T. J. Bunning, Proc. SPIE 6654, 665403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, and T. J. Bunning, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 951 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vaia, R. A.

T. J. White, J. J. Koval, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. A. Vaia, S. Serak, V. Grozhik, N. Tabirian, and T. J. Bunning, Proc. SPIE 6654, 665403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

White, T. J.

T. J. White, J. J. Koval, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. A. Vaia, S. Serak, V. Grozhik, N. Tabirian, and T. J. Bunning, Proc. SPIE 6654, 665403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

H. Ono, A. Emoto, F. Takahashi, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Hasegawa, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, and T. J. Bunning, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 951 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.

S. G. Cloutier, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 3371 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1

A. Ogiwara, H. Kakiuchida, M. Tazawa, and H. Ono, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 46, 7341 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

H. Ono, A. Hatayama, A. Emoto, and N. Kawatsuki, Opt. Mater. 30, 248 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

M. E. Holmes and M. S. Malcuit, Phys. Rev. E 65, 066603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Olenik, M. Fally, and M. A. Ellabban, Phys. Rev. E 74, 021707 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. W. Berreman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 1683 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

T. J. White, J. J. Koval, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. A. Vaia, S. Serak, V. Grozhik, N. Tabirian, and T. J. Bunning, Proc. SPIE 6654, 665403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Effects of diffraction efficiencies for a rubbed direction of 0° on the nematic LC contents in grating formation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Polarization-azimuth dependence of the zeroth (closed circles and triangles) and first (open circles and triangles) order diffraction efficiencies as a function of the incident polarization state to clarify the effects of the rubbing process on anisotropic grating formation. The circles and triangles show the diffraction efficiencies of gratings formed with rubbed directions of 0° and 90°. The diffraction efficiencies of η p and η s for p- and s-polarization states correspond to the polarization azimuth at 0° and 90°.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fringe patterns observed by polarization microscopy of LC composite gratings formed on (a) alignment layers rubbed at 0°, (b) alignment layers rubbed at 90°, and (c) bare glass plates. The arrows at the side of the images represent the directions of the polarizer (P) and analyzer (A). Polarizers are placed at 0° with respect to the grating vector in the images from A1 to C1, whereas they are placed at 45° in the images from A2 to C2.

Metrics