Abstract

A high-sensitivity detection method for optical power fluctuations is demonstrated based on photodetection in reflection of an optical resonator with a specific impedance matching. That resonator is used to reduce the carrier power reflected by the resonator while preserving the power fluctuation sidebands for frequencies above the resonator bandwidth. A sensitivity of 7×1010Hz12 for relative power fluctuations was achieved with only 3mA of detected photocurrent and 99.6% of the power remained for downstream experiments. As in the widely used ac coupling of electrical signals, this technique overcomes dynamic-range limits and reduces detector noise associated with large carrier amplitudes of the optical field.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008 (2)

B. Willke, K. Danzmann, M. Frede, P. King, D. Kracht, P. Kwee, O. Punken, R. Savage, B. Schulz, F. Seifert, C. Veltkamp, S. Wagner, P. Weßels, and L. Winkelmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 114040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Müller-Ebhardt, H. Rehbein, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, and Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

P. Kwee, F. Seifert, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 073103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2002 (1)

A. Weinstein, Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1575 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1987 (1)

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

T. Hansch and B. Couillaud, Opt. Commun. 35, 441 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

Chen, Y.

H. Müller-Ebhardt, H. Rehbein, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, and Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Somiya, Y. Chen, S. Kawamura, and N. Mio, Phys. Rev. D 73, 122005 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Couillaud, B.

T. Hansch and B. Couillaud, Opt. Commun. 35, 441 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Danzmann, K.

H. Müller-Ebhardt, H. Rehbein, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, and Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Willke, K. Danzmann, M. Frede, P. King, D. Kracht, P. Kwee, O. Punken, R. Savage, B. Schulz, F. Seifert, C. Veltkamp, S. Wagner, P. Weßels, and L. Winkelmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 114040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Kwee, F. Seifert, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 073103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Seifert, P. Kwee, M. Heurs, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, Opt. Lett. 31, 2000 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeVoe, R.

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Frede, M.

B. Willke, K. Danzmann, M. Frede, P. King, D. Kracht, P. Kwee, O. Punken, R. Savage, B. Schulz, F. Seifert, C. Veltkamp, S. Wagner, P. Weßels, and L. Winkelmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 114040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gustafson, E.

Hall, J. L.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hansch, T.

T. Hansch and B. Couillaud, Opt. Commun. 35, 441 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Heurs, M.

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, S.

K. Somiya, Y. Chen, S. Kawamura, and N. Mio, Phys. Rev. D 73, 122005 (2006).
[CrossRef]

King, P.

B. Willke, K. Danzmann, M. Frede, P. King, D. Kracht, P. Kwee, O. Punken, R. Savage, B. Schulz, F. Seifert, C. Veltkamp, S. Wagner, P. Weßels, and L. Winkelmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 114040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

King, P. J.

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kracht, D.

B. Willke, K. Danzmann, M. Frede, P. King, D. Kracht, P. Kwee, O. Punken, R. Savage, B. Schulz, F. Seifert, C. Veltkamp, S. Wagner, P. Weßels, and L. Winkelmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 114040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kwee, P.

B. Willke, K. Danzmann, M. Frede, P. King, D. Kracht, P. Kwee, O. Punken, R. Savage, B. Schulz, F. Seifert, C. Veltkamp, S. Wagner, P. Weßels, and L. Winkelmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 114040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Kwee, F. Seifert, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 073103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Seifert, P. Kwee, M. Heurs, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, Opt. Lett. 31, 2000 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levenson, M.

Milburn, G.

Mio, N.

K. Somiya, Y. Chen, S. Kawamura, and N. Mio, Phys. Rev. D 73, 122005 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Müller-Ebhardt, H.

H. Müller-Ebhardt, H. Rehbein, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, and Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Perlmutter, S.

Punken, O.

B. Willke, K. Danzmann, M. Frede, P. King, D. Kracht, P. Kwee, O. Punken, R. Savage, B. Schulz, F. Seifert, C. Veltkamp, S. Wagner, P. Weßels, and L. Winkelmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 114040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rehbein, H.

H. Müller-Ebhardt, H. Rehbein, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, and Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saulson, P. R.

P. R. Saulson, Fundamentals of Interferometric Gravitational Wave Detectors (World Scientific, 1994), Chap. 12.7.
[CrossRef]

Savage, R.

B. Willke, K. Danzmann, M. Frede, P. King, D. Kracht, P. Kwee, O. Punken, R. Savage, B. Schulz, F. Seifert, C. Veltkamp, S. Wagner, P. Weßels, and L. Winkelmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 114040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Savage, R. L.

Schnabel, R.

H. Müller-Ebhardt, H. Rehbein, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, and Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulz, B.

B. Willke, K. Danzmann, M. Frede, P. King, D. Kracht, P. Kwee, O. Punken, R. Savage, B. Schulz, F. Seifert, C. Veltkamp, S. Wagner, P. Weßels, and L. Winkelmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 114040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Seel, S. U.

Seifert, F.

B. Willke, K. Danzmann, M. Frede, P. King, D. Kracht, P. Kwee, O. Punken, R. Savage, B. Schulz, F. Seifert, C. Veltkamp, S. Wagner, P. Weßels, and L. Winkelmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 114040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Kwee, F. Seifert, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 073103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Seifert, P. Kwee, M. Heurs, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, Opt. Lett. 31, 2000 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shelby, R.

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (U. Science, 1986), Chap. 11.3.

Somiya, K.

K. Somiya, Y. Chen, S. Kawamura, and N. Mio, Phys. Rev. D 73, 122005 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Uehara, N.

Veltkamp, C.

B. Willke, K. Danzmann, M. Frede, P. King, D. Kracht, P. Kwee, O. Punken, R. Savage, B. Schulz, F. Seifert, C. Veltkamp, S. Wagner, P. Weßels, and L. Winkelmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 114040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, S.

B. Willke, K. Danzmann, M. Frede, P. King, D. Kracht, P. Kwee, O. Punken, R. Savage, B. Schulz, F. Seifert, C. Veltkamp, S. Wagner, P. Weßels, and L. Winkelmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 114040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Walls, D.

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Weinstein, A.

A. Weinstein, Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1575 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weßels, P.

B. Willke, K. Danzmann, M. Frede, P. King, D. Kracht, P. Kwee, O. Punken, R. Savage, B. Schulz, F. Seifert, C. Veltkamp, S. Wagner, P. Weßels, and L. Winkelmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 114040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Willke, B.

B. Willke, K. Danzmann, M. Frede, P. King, D. Kracht, P. Kwee, O. Punken, R. Savage, B. Schulz, F. Seifert, C. Veltkamp, S. Wagner, P. Weßels, and L. Winkelmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 114040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Kwee, F. Seifert, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 073103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Seifert, P. Kwee, M. Heurs, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, Opt. Lett. 31, 2000 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Willke, N. Uehara, E. Gustafson, R. L. Byer, P. J. King, S. U. Seel, and R. L. Savage, Opt. Lett. 23, 1704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Winkelmann, L.

B. Willke, K. Danzmann, M. Frede, P. King, D. Kracht, P. Kwee, O. Punken, R. Savage, B. Schulz, F. Seifert, C. Veltkamp, S. Wagner, P. Weßels, and L. Winkelmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 114040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Class. Quantum Grav. (2)

B. Willke, K. Danzmann, M. Frede, P. King, D. Kracht, P. Kwee, O. Punken, R. Savage, B. Schulz, F. Seifert, C. Veltkamp, S. Wagner, P. Weßels, and L. Winkelmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 114040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Weinstein, Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1575 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. Hansch and B. Couillaud, Opt. Commun. 35, 441 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. D (1)

K. Somiya, Y. Chen, S. Kawamura, and N. Mio, Phys. Rev. D 73, 122005 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. Müller-Ebhardt, H. Rehbein, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, and Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

P. Kwee, F. Seifert, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 073103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

P. R. Saulson, Fundamentals of Interferometric Gravitational Wave Detectors (World Scientific, 1994), Chap. 12.7.
[CrossRef]

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (U. Science, 1986), Chap. 11.3.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. The laser (NPRO) was locked to the resonator ACC. The power noise was measured with detector LPD in reflection of the ACC. Detector HPD was used to measure the power noise in a traditional way. EOM, electro-optic phase modulator; EOAM, electro-optic amplitude modulator; FI, Faraday isolator; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; λ 2 , λ 4 , wave plates.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured transfer function G ( f ) of RPN from the ACC input beam to the reflected beam using detectors HPD and LPD. The maximum gain was g = 15.3 with an upper corner frequency of f 0 = 34 kHz . The phase depended on the impedance matching of the ACC.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured power noise of the laser. The shot-noise limits for the different measurements are shown as horizontal lines (photocurrents are given in the legend). The sensitivity using the (c) optical AC coupling was increased by G ( f ) compared to the same detector with (a) unlocked ACC. A traditional measurement with (b) detector HPD verified the measurement results. The signals at 20 MHz were injected and those around 29 MHz were due to the modulation for the Pound–Drever–Hall locking of the MC.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

U in = U 0 ( 1 + m e i ω t ) .
U refl = U 0 ( a + m e i ω t [ 1 ( 1 a ) h ( f ) ] ) ,
G ( f ) = 1 ( 1 a ) h ( f ) a , G ( f ) = 1 + g 2 f 2 f 0 2 1 + f 2 f 0 2 .

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