Abstract

We investigate the effect of metal permittivity on resonant transmission of metamaterials by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Our experimental results on double split-ring resonators made from different metals confirm the recent numerical simulations [Phys. Rev. E 65, 036622 (2002) ] that metamaterials exhibit permittivity-dependent resonant properties. In the terahertz regime, the measured inductive–capacitive resonance is found to strengthen with a higher ratio of the real to the imaginary parts of metal permittivity, and this remains consistent at various metal thicknesses. Furthermore, we found that metamaterials made even from a generally poor metal become highly resonant owing to a drastic increase in the value of the permittivity at terahertz frequencies.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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H.-T. Chen, J. F. O'Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, Nat. Photonics 2, 295 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, E. Smirnova, A. J. Taylor, J. F. O'Hara, and W. Zhang, Opt. Express 16, 6537 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, Phys. Rev. B 76, 125408 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao and D. R. Grischkowsky, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 55, 656 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2004 (2)

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukolis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

N. C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, Jr., Phys. Rev. E 68, 016611 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Marques, F. Mesa, J. Martel, and F. Median, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2572 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. E 65, 036622 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 5514 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

J. B. Pendry, A. Holden, D. Robbins, and W. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 7, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Thio, H. F. Ghaemi, H. J. Lezec, P. A. Wolff, and T. W. Ebbesen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1743 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1983 (1)

Alexander, R. W.

Averitt, R. D.

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O'Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, Nat. Photonics 2, 295 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Azad, A. K.

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O'Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, Nat. Photonics 2, 295 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Azad, Y. Zhao, W. Zhang, and M. He, Opt. Lett. 31, 2637 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Azad, J. M. Dai, and W. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 31, 634 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bell, R. J.

Bell, R. R.

Bell, S. E.

Chen, H.-T.

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O'Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, Nat. Photonics 2, 295 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cooke, D. G.

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, Phys. Rev. B 76, 125408 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J. M.

Ebbesen, T. W.

Enkrich, C.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukolis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fattinger, Ch.

Freeman, M. R.

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, Phys. Rev. B 76, 125408 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ghaemi, H. F.

Grischkowsky, D.

Grischkowsky, D. R.

Y. Zhao and D. R. Grischkowsky, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 55, 656 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hajar, M.

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, Phys. Rev. B 76, 125408 (2007).
[CrossRef]

He, M.

Hegmann, F. A.

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, Phys. Rev. B 76, 125408 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Holden, A.

J. B. Pendry, A. Holden, D. Robbins, and W. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 7, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S.

Koschny, T.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukolis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezec, H. J.

Linden, S.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukolis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Long, L. L.

Markos, P.

P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. E 65, 036622 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marques, R.

R. Marques, F. Mesa, J. Martel, and F. Median, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2572 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martel, J.

R. Marques, F. Mesa, J. Martel, and F. Median, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2572 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Median, F.

R. Marques, F. Mesa, J. Martel, and F. Median, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2572 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mesa, F.

R. Marques, F. Mesa, J. Martel, and F. Median, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2572 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O'Hara, J. F.

R. Singh, E. Smirnova, A. J. Taylor, J. F. O'Hara, and W. Zhang, Opt. Express 16, 6537 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O'Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, Nat. Photonics 2, 295 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ordal, M. A.

Osgood, R. M.

N. C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, Jr., Phys. Rev. E 68, 016611 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O'Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, Nat. Photonics 2, 295 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panoiu, N. C.

N. C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, Jr., Phys. Rev. E 68, 016611 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. Holden, D. Robbins, and W. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 7, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Robbins, D.

J. B. Pendry, A. Holden, D. Robbins, and W. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 7, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 5514 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schurig, D.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 5514 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sherstan, C.

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, Phys. Rev. B 76, 125408 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shrekenhamer, D. B.

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O'Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, Nat. Photonics 2, 295 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Singh, R.

Smirnova, E.

Smith, D. R.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 5514 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Soukolis, C. M.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukolis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. E 65, 036622 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W.

J. B. Pendry, A. Holden, D. Robbins, and W. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 7, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

R. Singh, E. Smirnova, A. J. Taylor, J. F. O'Hara, and W. Zhang, Opt. Express 16, 6537 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O'Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, Nat. Photonics 2, 295 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thio, T.

van Exter, M.

Vier, D. C.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walther, M.

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, Phys. Rev. B 76, 125408 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ward, C. A.

Wegener, M.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukolis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolff, P. A.

Yen, T. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

Zhang, X.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao and D. R. Grischkowsky, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 55, 656 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Azad, Y. Zhao, W. Zhang, and M. He, Opt. Lett. 31, 2637 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukolis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

R. Marques, F. Mesa, J. Martel, and F. Median, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2572 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (2)

J. B. Pendry, A. Holden, D. Robbins, and W. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 7, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao and D. R. Grischkowsky, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 55, 656 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nat. Photonics (1)

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O'Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, Nat. Photonics 2, 295 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, Phys. Rev. B 76, 125408 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. E 65, 036622 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, Jr., Phys. Rev. E 68, 016611 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (4)

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukolis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 5514 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured frequency-dependent amplitude transmission of planar double SRR metamaterials made from Pb, Al, and Ag with various film thicknesses: (a) 0.5 δ , (b) 1.0 δ , and (c) 2.0 δ , near the LC resonance. Inset, schematic of the double SRR unit with dimensions w = 3 μ m , metal width t = 6 μ m , l = 36 μ m , effective length of the SRR unit l = 21 μ m , d = 2 μ m , and the periodicity P = 50 μ m .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured amplitude transmission minima and (b) Q factor at the LC resonance 0.5 THz for different metal SRRs with various thicknesses in skin depth.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Frequency-dependent Drude ratio, ε r m ε i m of Pb, Al, and Ag in the terahertz regime [11, 12]; the vertical dashed line indicates the LC resonance frequency 0.5 THz .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) THz-TDS results and (b) finite-element simulations of the LC resonant transmission of metamaterials made from 300 nm thick Pb, Al, Ag, S. Ag, and PEC. Inset, blow off of the simulated LC resonance.

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