Abstract

Surface reflections often present a problem in the polarization difference imaging of tissue. The technique described involves illumination in a single polarization state and detection in the orthogonal polarization state. Synchronously rotating both the illumination and orthogonal detection states provides an image free from surface reflections that is sensitive to the polarization properties of the underlying tissue. Results on tissue phantoms demonstrate that polarization sensitive measurements of a test target can be made up to a depth of 12 mean free paths within a scattering medium. Preliminary images of bovine tendon are also demonstrated.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. G. Demos and R. R. Alfano, Appl. Opt. 36, 150 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. P. Morgan and I. M. Stockford, Opt. Lett. 28, 114 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Morgan, O. Kostyuk, R. A. Brown, and V. Mudera, Tissue Eng. 12, 1821 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. A. Beach, C. Bustamante, K. S. Wells, and K. M. Foucar, Biophys. J. 53, 449 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. J. McNichols and G. L. Cote, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 5 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. Boulbry, T. A. Germer, and J. C. Ramella-Roman, Proc. SPIE 6078, 128 (2006).
  9. W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, Nat. Med. 5, 1209 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. R. Anderson, Arch. Dermatol. 127, 1000 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. F. Kurtz, “Wound healing monitoring and treatment,” U.S. patent application 2006241495 (October 26, 2006).
  12. V. V. Tuchin, Tissue Optics (SPIE, 2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. D. Lewis, D. L. Jordan, and P. J. Roberts, Appl. Opt. 38, 3937 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. X. D. Wang and L. H. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 279 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. N. B. E. Sawyer, S. P. Morgan, M. G. Somekh, C. W. See, X. F. Cao, B. Y. Shekunov, and E. Astrakharchik, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3793 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (2)

M. Morgan, O. Kostyuk, R. A. Brown, and V. Mudera, Tissue Eng. 12, 1821 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Boulbry, T. A. Germer, and J. C. Ramella-Roman, Proc. SPIE 6078, 128 (2006).

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

X. D. Wang and L. H. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 279 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

N. B. E. Sawyer, S. P. Morgan, M. G. Somekh, C. W. See, X. F. Cao, B. Y. Shekunov, and E. Astrakharchik, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3793 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. McNichols and G. L. Cote, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 5 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

G. D. Lewis, D. L. Jordan, and P. J. Roberts, Appl. Opt. 38, 3937 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, Nat. Med. 5, 1209 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1991 (1)

R. R. Anderson, Arch. Dermatol. 127, 1000 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

D. A. Beach, C. Bustamante, K. S. Wells, and K. M. Foucar, Biophys. J. 53, 449 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

Anderson, R. R.

R. R. Anderson, Arch. Dermatol. 127, 1000 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Astrakharchik, E.

N. B. E. Sawyer, S. P. Morgan, M. G. Somekh, C. W. See, X. F. Cao, B. Y. Shekunov, and E. Astrakharchik, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3793 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Backman, V.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Badizadegan, K.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Beach, D. A.

D. A. Beach, C. Bustamante, K. S. Wells, and K. M. Foucar, Biophys. J. 53, 449 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boulbry, B.

B. Boulbry, T. A. Germer, and J. C. Ramella-Roman, Proc. SPIE 6078, 128 (2006).

Bouma, G. J.

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, Nat. Med. 5, 1209 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, R. A.

M. Morgan, O. Kostyuk, R. A. Brown, and V. Mudera, Tissue Eng. 12, 1821 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bustamante, C.

D. A. Beach, C. Bustamante, K. S. Wells, and K. M. Foucar, Biophys. J. 53, 449 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, X. F.

N. B. E. Sawyer, S. P. Morgan, M. G. Somekh, C. W. See, X. F. Cao, B. Y. Shekunov, and E. Astrakharchik, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3793 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cote, G. L.

R. J. McNichols and G. L. Cote, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 5 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Demos, S. G.

Feld, M. S.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Foucar, K. M.

D. A. Beach, C. Bustamante, K. S. Wells, and K. M. Foucar, Biophys. J. 53, 449 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Germer, T. A.

B. Boulbry, T. A. Germer, and J. C. Ramella-Roman, Proc. SPIE 6078, 128 (2006).

Groner, W.

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, Nat. Med. 5, 1209 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gurjar, R.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Harris, A. G.

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, Nat. Med. 5, 1209 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ince, C.

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, Nat. Med. 5, 1209 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itzkan, L.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jordan, D. L.

Kostyuk, O.

M. Morgan, O. Kostyuk, R. A. Brown, and V. Mudera, Tissue Eng. 12, 1821 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurtz, A. F.

A. F. Kurtz, “Wound healing monitoring and treatment,” U.S. patent application 2006241495 (October 26, 2006).

Lee, K.

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, G. D.

McNichols, R. J.

R. J. McNichols and G. L. Cote, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 5 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Messmer, K.

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, Nat. Med. 5, 1209 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgan, M.

M. Morgan, O. Kostyuk, R. A. Brown, and V. Mudera, Tissue Eng. 12, 1821 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgan, S. P.

S. P. Morgan and I. M. Stockford, Opt. Lett. 28, 114 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. B. E. Sawyer, S. P. Morgan, M. G. Somekh, C. W. See, X. F. Cao, B. Y. Shekunov, and E. Astrakharchik, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3793 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mudera, V.

M. Morgan, O. Kostyuk, R. A. Brown, and V. Mudera, Tissue Eng. 12, 1821 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nadeau, R. G.

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, Nat. Med. 5, 1209 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perelman, L. T.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ramella-Roman, J. C.

B. Boulbry, T. A. Germer, and J. C. Ramella-Roman, Proc. SPIE 6078, 128 (2006).

Roberts, P. J.

Roman, J. R.

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sawyer, N. B. E.

N. B. E. Sawyer, S. P. Morgan, M. G. Somekh, C. W. See, X. F. Cao, B. Y. Shekunov, and E. Astrakharchik, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3793 (2001).
[CrossRef]

See, C. W.

N. B. E. Sawyer, S. P. Morgan, M. G. Somekh, C. W. See, X. F. Cao, B. Y. Shekunov, and E. Astrakharchik, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3793 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shekunov, B. Y.

N. B. E. Sawyer, S. P. Morgan, M. G. Somekh, C. W. See, X. F. Cao, B. Y. Shekunov, and E. Astrakharchik, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3793 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Somekh, M. G.

N. B. E. Sawyer, S. P. Morgan, M. G. Somekh, C. W. See, X. F. Cao, B. Y. Shekunov, and E. Astrakharchik, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3793 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stockford, I. M.

Tuchin, V. V.

V. V. Tuchin, Tissue Optics (SPIE, 2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. H. V.

X. D. Wang and L. H. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 279 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X. D.

X. D. Wang and L. H. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 279 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wells, K. S.

D. A. Beach, C. Bustamante, K. S. Wells, and K. M. Foucar, Biophys. J. 53, 449 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winkelman, J. W.

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, Nat. Med. 5, 1209 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Arch. Dermatol. (1)

R. R. Anderson, Arch. Dermatol. 127, 1000 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biophys. J. (1)

D. A. Beach, C. Bustamante, K. S. Wells, and K. M. Foucar, Biophys. J. 53, 449 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

X. D. Wang and L. H. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 279 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. McNichols and G. L. Cote, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 5 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Med. (1)

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, Nat. Med. 5, 1209 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

B. Boulbry, T. A. Germer, and J. C. Ramella-Roman, Proc. SPIE 6078, 128 (2006).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

N. B. E. Sawyer, S. P. Morgan, M. G. Somekh, C. W. See, X. F. Cao, B. Y. Shekunov, and E. Astrakharchik, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3793 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tissue Eng. (1)

M. Morgan, O. Kostyuk, R. A. Brown, and V. Mudera, Tissue Eng. 12, 1821 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

A. F. Kurtz, “Wound healing monitoring and treatment,” U.S. patent application 2006241495 (October 26, 2006).

V. V. Tuchin, Tissue Optics (SPIE, 2007).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experiment configuration. 1, Ground glass rotating diffuser; 2, plano–convex lens, focal length = 60 mm ; 3, Glan–Thompson polarizer; 4, 4 × microscope objective, NA = 0.1 ; 5, cube beam splitter; 6, aperture; 7, half-wave plate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Conventional polarization imaging. (a) Copolar, (b) cross polar. Each image corresponds to an area of 8 mm × 8 mm and the target is embedded at a depth of 2 mfps within the medium. The copolar image is clearly dominated by surface reflections.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

ROPI images at different target depths (row 1 = 2 mfps , row 2 = 5 mfps , row 3 = 12 mfps ). Column 1 = 0 ° illumination, 90° detection; column 2 = 90 ° illumination, 0° detection; column 3 = ( column 1 column 2 ) ( column 1 + column 2 ) . Each image corresponds to an area of 8 mm × 8 mm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Bovine tendon images. (a) Copolar, (b) 0 ° 90 ° image, (c) 90 ° 0 ° image, (d) ROPI normalized difference image. Each image is 8 mm × 8 mm .

Metrics