Abstract

A novel mechanical antialiasing interferometric fiber-optic hydrophone with a fourth-order acoustic low-pass filter has been fabricated and demonstrated for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The low-frequency lumped parameters model of the hydrophone is constructed based on the theories of an electroacoustic analogy, and the acoustic performance is predicted by the circuit analysis methods. The measured low-frequency response is very flat, and the acoustic sensitivity is about 140dB with regard to 1radμPa. The system has two measured resonant frequencies, i.e., 850 and 4000Hz, which is in agreement with the simulation results. It is expected that this new type of fiber-optic hydrophone will become an important class of sensors used to eliminate the aliasing in future sonar systems.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. G. Giallorenzi, J. A. Bucaro, A. Dandridge, G. H. Sigel, J. H. Cole, S. C. Rashleigh, and R. G. Priest, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT30, 472 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Nash, IEE Proc., Radar Sonar Navig. 143, 204 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. A. Cranch and P. J. Nash, J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 687 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, and C. K. Kirkendall, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 19 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. A. Cranch, C. K. Kirkendall, K. Daley, S. Motley, A. Bautista, J. Salzano, P. J. Nash, J. Latchem, and R. Crickmore, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1579 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z. Wang, Y. Hu, Z. Meng, M. Ni, and S. Xiong, Acta Opt. Sin. 28, 92 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Z. Wang, Y. Hu, Z. Meng, M. Ni, and S. Xiong, Opt. Lett. 33, 37 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. R. Stinson and E. A. G. Shaw, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 77, 2039 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Z. Wang, H. Luo, S. Xiong, M. Ni, and Y. Hu, Acta Opt. Sin. 27, 654 (2007).
  10. D. M. Photiadis, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 90, 1188 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

Z. Wang, Y. Hu, Z. Meng, M. Ni, and S. Xiong, Acta Opt. Sin. 28, 92 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, Y. Hu, Z. Meng, M. Ni, and S. Xiong, Opt. Lett. 33, 37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

Z. Wang, H. Luo, S. Xiong, M. Ni, and Y. Hu, Acta Opt. Sin. 27, 654 (2007).

2003 (2)

G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, and C. K. Kirkendall, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Cranch, C. K. Kirkendall, K. Daley, S. Motley, A. Bautista, J. Salzano, P. J. Nash, J. Latchem, and R. Crickmore, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1579 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1996 (1)

P. Nash, IEE Proc., Radar Sonar Navig. 143, 204 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. M. Photiadis, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 90, 1188 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

M. R. Stinson and E. A. G. Shaw, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 77, 2039 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

T. G. Giallorenzi, J. A. Bucaro, A. Dandridge, G. H. Sigel, J. H. Cole, S. C. Rashleigh, and R. G. Priest, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT30, 472 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bautista, A.

G. A. Cranch, C. K. Kirkendall, K. Daley, S. Motley, A. Bautista, J. Salzano, P. J. Nash, J. Latchem, and R. Crickmore, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1579 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bucaro, J. A.

T. G. Giallorenzi, J. A. Bucaro, A. Dandridge, G. H. Sigel, J. H. Cole, S. C. Rashleigh, and R. G. Priest, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT30, 472 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Cole, J. H.

T. G. Giallorenzi, J. A. Bucaro, A. Dandridge, G. H. Sigel, J. H. Cole, S. C. Rashleigh, and R. G. Priest, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT30, 472 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Cranch, G. A.

G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, and C. K. Kirkendall, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Cranch, C. K. Kirkendall, K. Daley, S. Motley, A. Bautista, J. Salzano, P. J. Nash, J. Latchem, and R. Crickmore, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1579 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Cranch and P. J. Nash, J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 687 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Crickmore, R.

G. A. Cranch, C. K. Kirkendall, K. Daley, S. Motley, A. Bautista, J. Salzano, P. J. Nash, J. Latchem, and R. Crickmore, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1579 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Daley, K.

G. A. Cranch, C. K. Kirkendall, K. Daley, S. Motley, A. Bautista, J. Salzano, P. J. Nash, J. Latchem, and R. Crickmore, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1579 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dandridge, A.

T. G. Giallorenzi, J. A. Bucaro, A. Dandridge, G. H. Sigel, J. H. Cole, S. C. Rashleigh, and R. G. Priest, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT30, 472 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Giallorenzi, T. G.

T. G. Giallorenzi, J. A. Bucaro, A. Dandridge, G. H. Sigel, J. H. Cole, S. C. Rashleigh, and R. G. Priest, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT30, 472 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

Z. Wang, Y. Hu, Z. Meng, M. Ni, and S. Xiong, Acta Opt. Sin. 28, 92 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, Y. Hu, Z. Meng, M. Ni, and S. Xiong, Opt. Lett. 33, 37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, H. Luo, S. Xiong, M. Ni, and Y. Hu, Acta Opt. Sin. 27, 654 (2007).

Kirkendall, C. K.

G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, and C. K. Kirkendall, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Cranch, C. K. Kirkendall, K. Daley, S. Motley, A. Bautista, J. Salzano, P. J. Nash, J. Latchem, and R. Crickmore, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1579 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Latchem, J.

G. A. Cranch, C. K. Kirkendall, K. Daley, S. Motley, A. Bautista, J. Salzano, P. J. Nash, J. Latchem, and R. Crickmore, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1579 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luo, H.

Z. Wang, H. Luo, S. Xiong, M. Ni, and Y. Hu, Acta Opt. Sin. 27, 654 (2007).

Meng, Z.

Z. Wang, Y. Hu, Z. Meng, M. Ni, and S. Xiong, Acta Opt. Sin. 28, 92 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, Y. Hu, Z. Meng, M. Ni, and S. Xiong, Opt. Lett. 33, 37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Motley, S.

G. A. Cranch, C. K. Kirkendall, K. Daley, S. Motley, A. Bautista, J. Salzano, P. J. Nash, J. Latchem, and R. Crickmore, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1579 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nash, P.

P. Nash, IEE Proc., Radar Sonar Navig. 143, 204 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nash, P. J.

G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, and C. K. Kirkendall, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Cranch, C. K. Kirkendall, K. Daley, S. Motley, A. Bautista, J. Salzano, P. J. Nash, J. Latchem, and R. Crickmore, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1579 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Cranch and P. J. Nash, J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 687 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ni, M.

Z. Wang, Y. Hu, Z. Meng, M. Ni, and S. Xiong, Opt. Lett. 33, 37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, Y. Hu, Z. Meng, M. Ni, and S. Xiong, Acta Opt. Sin. 28, 92 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, H. Luo, S. Xiong, M. Ni, and Y. Hu, Acta Opt. Sin. 27, 654 (2007).

Photiadis, D. M.

D. M. Photiadis, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 90, 1188 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Priest, R. G.

T. G. Giallorenzi, J. A. Bucaro, A. Dandridge, G. H. Sigel, J. H. Cole, S. C. Rashleigh, and R. G. Priest, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT30, 472 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Rashleigh, S. C.

T. G. Giallorenzi, J. A. Bucaro, A. Dandridge, G. H. Sigel, J. H. Cole, S. C. Rashleigh, and R. G. Priest, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT30, 472 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Salzano, J.

G. A. Cranch, C. K. Kirkendall, K. Daley, S. Motley, A. Bautista, J. Salzano, P. J. Nash, J. Latchem, and R. Crickmore, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1579 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, E. A. G.

M. R. Stinson and E. A. G. Shaw, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 77, 2039 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sigel, G. H.

T. G. Giallorenzi, J. A. Bucaro, A. Dandridge, G. H. Sigel, J. H. Cole, S. C. Rashleigh, and R. G. Priest, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT30, 472 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, M. R.

M. R. Stinson and E. A. G. Shaw, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 77, 2039 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, Y. Hu, Z. Meng, M. Ni, and S. Xiong, Acta Opt. Sin. 28, 92 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, Y. Hu, Z. Meng, M. Ni, and S. Xiong, Opt. Lett. 33, 37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, H. Luo, S. Xiong, M. Ni, and Y. Hu, Acta Opt. Sin. 27, 654 (2007).

Xiong, S.

Z. Wang, Y. Hu, Z. Meng, M. Ni, and S. Xiong, Acta Opt. Sin. 28, 92 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, Y. Hu, Z. Meng, M. Ni, and S. Xiong, Opt. Lett. 33, 37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, H. Luo, S. Xiong, M. Ni, and Y. Hu, Acta Opt. Sin. 27, 654 (2007).

Acta Opt. Sin. (2)

Z. Wang, Y. Hu, Z. Meng, M. Ni, and S. Xiong, Acta Opt. Sin. 28, 92 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, H. Luo, S. Xiong, M. Ni, and Y. Hu, Acta Opt. Sin. 27, 654 (2007).

IEE Proc., Radar Sonar Navig. (1)

P. Nash, IEE Proc., Radar Sonar Navig. 143, 204 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

G. A. Cranch, C. K. Kirkendall, K. Daley, S. Motley, A. Bautista, J. Salzano, P. J. Nash, J. Latchem, and R. Crickmore, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1579 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, and C. K. Kirkendall, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

T. G. Giallorenzi, J. A. Bucaro, A. Dandridge, G. H. Sigel, J. H. Cole, S. C. Rashleigh, and R. G. Priest, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT30, 472 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (2)

M. R. Stinson and E. A. G. Shaw, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 77, 2039 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Photiadis, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 90, 1188 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fiber-optic hydrophone with a fourth-order acoustic low-pass filter: (a) photograph, (b) schematic.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Acoustic equivalent circuit of the fiber-optic hydrophone with a fourth-order acoustic low-pass filter. R a and M a are the equivalent acoustic resistance and acoustic mass of the orifices, respectively; C c 1 and C c 2 are the equivalent acoustic compliance of the short and the long cavities, respectively; C opt is the equivalent acoustic compliance of the fiber sensing mandrel; and p 1 and p 2 are the acoustic pressure on the mouth of the outside orifices and in the long cavity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the experimental setup.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured acoustic sensitivity frequency response of the fiber-optic hydrophones with (dots) and without (asterisks) the fourth-order acoustic low-pass filter compared with the numerical curves of Q 2 = 12.8 (dashed curve) and Q 2 = 2 (solid curve).

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T ( s ) = p 2 p 1 = 1 α s 4 + β s 3 + γ s 2 + ζ s + 1 ,
α = M a 2 C c 1 C eff ,
β = 2 R a M a C c 1 C eff ,
γ = [ M a ( C c 1 + 2 C eff ) + R a 2 C c 1 C eff ] ,
ζ = R a ( C c 1 + 2 C eff ) .
M a = ρ ( l + 1.7 a ) π a 2 , R a = ρ ( l + 1.7 a ) ( 2 μ ω ) 1 2 π a 3 ,
C c 1 = V c 1 ρ c 2 , C c 2 = V c 2 V opt ρ c 2 ,
C opt = λ H R 2 2 n L ( Δ ϕ p ) ,
ω 1 , 2 2 = ( 2 ω 01 2 + ω 02 2 ) ± ( 4 ω 01 4 + ω 02 4 ) 1 2 2 ,
ω 1 2 = 2 ω 01 2 , ω 2 2 = 2 ω 02 2 .
T ( ω 1 ) = Q 2 2 2 ( 2 Q 1 2 + 1 ) 1 2 , T ( ω 2 ) = Q 2 2 1 2 ,
Q 1 = ( M a C c 1 ) 1 2 R a , Q 2 = ( M a C eff ) 1 2 R a .

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