Abstract

A reflective pulsed terahertz imaging system based on direct detection was developed and used to obtain high-resolution images of a porcine skin specimen with superficial partial-thickness (second-degree) burns. Images were also obtained of the sample through ten layers of dry medical (cotton) gauze with minimal image degradation. The burned and unburned regions of skin had large differences in terahertz reflectivity, displaying clear delineation [20dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) difference signal] between both regions in the images. The terahertz images also exhibited a “halo” surrounding the burn areas that may correlate to the extent of burn injury. The system operated at a center frequency of 500GHz with 125GHz of 3dB bandwidth and used whiskbroom scanning to generate images with a spatial resolution of 1.5mm. Each pixel was acquired with a 16ms integration time, resulting in a 40dB postdetection SNR. The simplicity and high SNR of the reflective terahertz system are promising steps toward real-time terahertz medical imaging.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. E. Bjarnason, T. L. J. Chan, A. W. M. Lee, M. A. Celis, and E. R. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 519 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. 500-750GHz zero-bias detector (WR1.5ZBD), Virginia Diodes, Inc. (http://virginiadiodes.com/).
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, J. Y. Suen, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, Proc. SPIE 6949, 69490D-1 (2008).

2007 (1)

J. P. Dougherty, G. D. Jubic, and W. L. Kiser, Proc. SPIE 6472, 64720N (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2004 (3)

P. H. Siegel, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 2438 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bjarnason, T. L. J. Chan, A. W. M. Lee, M. A. Celis, and E. R. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, Phys. Med. Biol. 491595 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Bouclier, D. Cavey, N. Kail, and C. Hensby, Pharmacol. Rev. 42, 127 (1990).
[PubMed]

Baraniuk, R. G.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bjarnason, J. E.

Z. D. Taylor, E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, Opt. Lett. 31, 1729 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Bjarnason, T. L. J. Chan, A. W. M. Lee, M. A. Celis, and E. R. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, in Proceedings of the International Microwave Symposium (IEEE, 2007).

Bouclier, M.

M. Bouclier, D. Cavey, N. Kail, and C. Hensby, Pharmacol. Rev. 42, 127 (1990).
[PubMed]

Brown, E. R.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, J. Y. Suen, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, Proc. SPIE 6949, 69490D-1 (2008).

Z. D. Taylor, E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, Opt. Lett. 31, 1729 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Bjarnason, T. L. J. Chan, A. W. M. Lee, M. A. Celis, and E. R. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, in Proceedings of the International Microwave Symposium (IEEE, 2007).

Cavey, D.

M. Bouclier, D. Cavey, N. Kail, and C. Hensby, Pharmacol. Rev. 42, 127 (1990).
[PubMed]

Celis, M. A.

J. E. Bjarnason, T. L. J. Chan, A. W. M. Lee, M. A. Celis, and E. R. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chan, T. L. J.

J. E. Bjarnason, T. L. J. Chan, A. W. M. Lee, M. A. Celis, and E. R. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cole, B. E.

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, Phys. Med. Biol. 491595 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Culjat, M. O.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, J. Y. Suen, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, Proc. SPIE 6949, 69490D-1 (2008).

Dougherty, J. P.

J. P. Dougherty, G. D. Jubic, and W. L. Kiser, Proc. SPIE 6472, 64720N (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, A. J.

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, Phys. Med. Biol. 491595 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gossard, A. C.

Z. D. Taylor, E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, Opt. Lett. 31, 1729 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, in Proceedings of the International Microwave Symposium (IEEE, 2007).

Grundfest, W. S.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, J. Y. Suen, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, Proc. SPIE 6949, 69490D-1 (2008).

Gupta, M.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, M. P.

Z. D. Taylor, E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, Opt. Lett. 31, 1729 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, in Proceedings of the International Microwave Symposium (IEEE, 2007).

Hensby, C.

M. Bouclier, D. Cavey, N. Kail, and C. Hensby, Pharmacol. Rev. 42, 127 (1990).
[PubMed]

Jubic, G. D.

J. P. Dougherty, G. D. Jubic, and W. L. Kiser, Proc. SPIE 6472, 64720N (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kail, N.

M. Bouclier, D. Cavey, N. Kail, and C. Hensby, Pharmacol. Rev. 42, 127 (1990).
[PubMed]

Kiser, W. L.

J. P. Dougherty, G. D. Jubic, and W. L. Kiser, Proc. SPIE 6472, 64720N (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, A. W. M.

J. E. Bjarnason, T. L. J. Chan, A. W. M. Lee, M. A. Celis, and E. R. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Neelamani, R.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pepper, M.

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, Phys. Med. Biol. 491595 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pickwell, E.

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, J. Phys. D 39, R301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, Phys. Med. Biol. 491595 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rudd, J. V.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, P. H.

P. H. Siegel, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 2438 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Singh, R. S.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, J. Y. Suen, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, Proc. SPIE 6949, 69490D-1 (2008).

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, in Proceedings of the International Microwave Symposium (IEEE, 2007).

Suen, J. Y.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, J. Y. Suen, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, Proc. SPIE 6949, 69490D-1 (2008).

Taylor, Z. D.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, J. Y. Suen, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, Proc. SPIE 6949, 69490D-1 (2008).

Z. D. Taylor, E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, Opt. Lett. 31, 1729 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, in Proceedings of the International Microwave Symposium (IEEE, 2007).

Wallace, V. P.

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, J. Phys. D 39, R301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, Phys. Med. Biol. 491595 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. E. Bjarnason, T. L. J. Chan, A. W. M. Lee, M. A. Celis, and E. R. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

P. H. Siegel, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 2438 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, J. Phys. D 39, R301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Pharmacol. Rev. (1)

M. Bouclier, D. Cavey, N. Kail, and C. Hensby, Pharmacol. Rev. 42, 127 (1990).
[PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, Phys. Med. Biol. 491595 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, J. Y. Suen, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, Proc. SPIE 6949, 69490D-1 (2008).

J. P. Dougherty, G. D. Jubic, and W. L. Kiser, Proc. SPIE 6472, 64720N (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, in Proceedings of the International Microwave Symposium (IEEE, 2007).

500-750GHz zero-bias detector (WR1.5ZBD), Virginia Diodes, Inc. (http://virginiadiodes.com/).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Top-down view of imaging setup used to generate text images. The pig skin target was mounted into the area labeled “Imaging Plane.”

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Pig skin burning and mounting. (a) Burned and mounted pig skin sample. (b) Side view of mounted pig skin with ten layers of gauze.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Terahertz images of the pig skin sample. The lighter areas correspond to areas of the higher reflected signal. The gray scale on each side of the image shows the signal level in units of millivolts. (a) Uninjured skin. (b) Burned skin. (c) Burned skin beneath five layers of gauze. (d) Burned skin beneath ten layers of gauze.

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