Abstract

We demonstrate the possibility of measuring parts in 1012 by volume concentrations of radicals of high atmospheric interest, such as IO or BrO, as needed for monitoring these species in the environment. We apply cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy in the near UV range using a frequency-doubled Ti:Sa mode-locked femtosecond laser. Efficient broadband injection of a high-finesse cavity is obtained by matching this optical frequency-comb source to the comb of cavity transmission resonances. A grating spectrograph and a detector array disperse and detect the spectrum transmitted by the cavity carrying the absorption features of intracavity molecules. Spectra recorded over 4nm with 10s averaging display a noise level of 8×1010cm.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Triki, P. Cermak, G. Mejean, and D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B 91, 195 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Gherman and D. Romanini, Opt. Express 10, 1033 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  4. T. Gherman, S. Kassi, A. Campargue, and D. Romanini, Chem. Phys. Lett. 383, 353 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Gherman, E. Eslami, D. Romanini, S. Kassi, J.-C. Vial, and N. Sadeghi, J. Phys. D 37, 2408 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, Nature 445, 627 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. J. Thorpe, D. D. Hudson, K. D. Moll, J. Lasri, and J. Ye, Opt. Lett. 32, 307 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. Foster, R. Plastridge, J. Bottenheim, P. Shepson, B. Finlayson-Pitts, and C. W. Spicer, Science 291, 471 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. B. Atkinson, J. W. Hudgens, and A. J. Orr-Ewing, J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 6173 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Morville, D. Romanini, M. Chenevier, and A. Kachanov, Appl. Opt. 41, 6980 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. H. Harwood, J. B. Burkholder, M. Hunter, R. W. Fox, and A. R. Ravishankara, J. Phys. Chem. A 101, 853 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

M. Triki, P. Cermak, G. Mejean, and D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B 91, 195 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2005 (1)

M. Mazurenka, A. J. Orr-Ewing, R. Peverallb, and G. A. D. Ritchie, Annu. Rep. Prog. Chem. Sect. C 101, 100 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

T. Gherman, S. Kassi, A. Campargue, and D. Romanini, Chem. Phys. Lett. 383, 353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Gherman, E. Eslami, D. Romanini, S. Kassi, J.-C. Vial, and N. Sadeghi, J. Phys. D 37, 2408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

K. Foster, R. Plastridge, J. Bottenheim, P. Shepson, B. Finlayson-Pitts, and C. W. Spicer, Science 291, 471 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

D. B. Atkinson, J. W. Hudgens, and A. J. Orr-Ewing, J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 6173 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. H. Harwood, J. B. Burkholder, M. Hunter, R. W. Fox, and A. R. Ravishankara, J. Phys. Chem. A 101, 853 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, D. B.

D. B. Atkinson, J. W. Hudgens, and A. J. Orr-Ewing, J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 6173 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bottenheim, J.

K. Foster, R. Plastridge, J. Bottenheim, P. Shepson, B. Finlayson-Pitts, and C. W. Spicer, Science 291, 471 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burkholder, J. B.

M. H. Harwood, J. B. Burkholder, M. Hunter, R. W. Fox, and A. R. Ravishankara, J. Phys. Chem. A 101, 853 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Campargue, A.

T. Gherman, S. Kassi, A. Campargue, and D. Romanini, Chem. Phys. Lett. 383, 353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cermak, P.

M. Triki, P. Cermak, G. Mejean, and D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B 91, 195 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chenevier, M.

Diddams, S. A.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, Nature 445, 627 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eslami, E.

T. Gherman, E. Eslami, D. Romanini, S. Kassi, J.-C. Vial, and N. Sadeghi, J. Phys. D 37, 2408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Finlayson-Pitts, B.

K. Foster, R. Plastridge, J. Bottenheim, P. Shepson, B. Finlayson-Pitts, and C. W. Spicer, Science 291, 471 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, K.

K. Foster, R. Plastridge, J. Bottenheim, P. Shepson, B. Finlayson-Pitts, and C. W. Spicer, Science 291, 471 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fox, R. W.

M. H. Harwood, J. B. Burkholder, M. Hunter, R. W. Fox, and A. R. Ravishankara, J. Phys. Chem. A 101, 853 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gherman, T.

T. Gherman, S. Kassi, A. Campargue, and D. Romanini, Chem. Phys. Lett. 383, 353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Gherman, E. Eslami, D. Romanini, S. Kassi, J.-C. Vial, and N. Sadeghi, J. Phys. D 37, 2408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Gherman and D. Romanini, Opt. Express 10, 1033 (2002).
[PubMed]

Harwood, M. H.

M. H. Harwood, J. B. Burkholder, M. Hunter, R. W. Fox, and A. R. Ravishankara, J. Phys. Chem. A 101, 853 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, Nature 445, 627 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hudgens, J. W.

D. B. Atkinson, J. W. Hudgens, and A. J. Orr-Ewing, J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 6173 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, D. D.

Hunter, M.

M. H. Harwood, J. B. Burkholder, M. Hunter, R. W. Fox, and A. R. Ravishankara, J. Phys. Chem. A 101, 853 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kachanov, A.

Kassi, S.

T. Gherman, S. Kassi, A. Campargue, and D. Romanini, Chem. Phys. Lett. 383, 353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Gherman, E. Eslami, D. Romanini, S. Kassi, J.-C. Vial, and N. Sadeghi, J. Phys. D 37, 2408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lasri, J.

Mazurenka, M.

M. Mazurenka, A. J. Orr-Ewing, R. Peverallb, and G. A. D. Ritchie, Annu. Rep. Prog. Chem. Sect. C 101, 100 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mbele, V.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, Nature 445, 627 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mejean, G.

M. Triki, P. Cermak, G. Mejean, and D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B 91, 195 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moll, K. D.

Morville, J.

Orr-Ewing, A. J.

M. Mazurenka, A. J. Orr-Ewing, R. Peverallb, and G. A. D. Ritchie, Annu. Rep. Prog. Chem. Sect. C 101, 100 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Atkinson, J. W. Hudgens, and A. J. Orr-Ewing, J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 6173 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peverallb, R.

M. Mazurenka, A. J. Orr-Ewing, R. Peverallb, and G. A. D. Ritchie, Annu. Rep. Prog. Chem. Sect. C 101, 100 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Plastridge, R.

K. Foster, R. Plastridge, J. Bottenheim, P. Shepson, B. Finlayson-Pitts, and C. W. Spicer, Science 291, 471 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ravishankara, A. R.

M. H. Harwood, J. B. Burkholder, M. Hunter, R. W. Fox, and A. R. Ravishankara, J. Phys. Chem. A 101, 853 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, G. A. D.

M. Mazurenka, A. J. Orr-Ewing, R. Peverallb, and G. A. D. Ritchie, Annu. Rep. Prog. Chem. Sect. C 101, 100 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Romanini, D.

M. Triki, P. Cermak, G. Mejean, and D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B 91, 195 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Gherman, E. Eslami, D. Romanini, S. Kassi, J.-C. Vial, and N. Sadeghi, J. Phys. D 37, 2408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Gherman, S. Kassi, A. Campargue, and D. Romanini, Chem. Phys. Lett. 383, 353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Morville, D. Romanini, M. Chenevier, and A. Kachanov, Appl. Opt. 41, 6980 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Gherman and D. Romanini, Opt. Express 10, 1033 (2002).
[PubMed]

Sadeghi, N.

T. Gherman, E. Eslami, D. Romanini, S. Kassi, J.-C. Vial, and N. Sadeghi, J. Phys. D 37, 2408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shepson, P.

K. Foster, R. Plastridge, J. Bottenheim, P. Shepson, B. Finlayson-Pitts, and C. W. Spicer, Science 291, 471 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spicer, C. W.

K. Foster, R. Plastridge, J. Bottenheim, P. Shepson, B. Finlayson-Pitts, and C. W. Spicer, Science 291, 471 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thorpe, M. J.

Triki, M.

M. Triki, P. Cermak, G. Mejean, and D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B 91, 195 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vial, J.-C.

T. Gherman, E. Eslami, D. Romanini, S. Kassi, J.-C. Vial, and N. Sadeghi, J. Phys. D 37, 2408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

Annu. Rep. Prog. Chem. Sect. C (1)

M. Mazurenka, A. J. Orr-Ewing, R. Peverallb, and G. A. D. Ritchie, Annu. Rep. Prog. Chem. Sect. C 101, 100 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Triki, P. Cermak, G. Mejean, and D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B 91, 195 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Gherman, S. Kassi, A. Campargue, and D. Romanini, Chem. Phys. Lett. 383, 353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A (2)

D. B. Atkinson, J. W. Hudgens, and A. J. Orr-Ewing, J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 6173 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Harwood, J. B. Burkholder, M. Hunter, R. W. Fox, and A. R. Ravishankara, J. Phys. Chem. A 101, 853 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

T. Gherman, E. Eslami, D. Romanini, S. Kassi, J.-C. Vial, and N. Sadeghi, J. Phys. D 37, 2408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, Nature 445, 627 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Science (1)

K. Foster, R. Plastridge, J. Bottenheim, P. Shepson, B. Finlayson-Pitts, and C. W. Spicer, Science 291, 471 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. The two high reflectivity mirrors M 1 and M 2 form the high-finesse cavity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Successive raw spectra (intensity decreasing in time) taken at 10 s averaging intervals after starting ozone generation. The structured absorption band (converted in transmission units in the inset) is due to IO radicals. From its intensity a concentration of 230 pptv is deduced. The signal-to-noise ratio for this band is 200 . The inset shows details of the IO absorption band in transmission after normalization by a zero absorption spectrum (the first in the sequence, curve).

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