Abstract

We examine the generation of terahertz (THz) by optical rectification of a fundamental infrared beam with its first harmonic in ionized air. From polarization measurements we identify an important, yet so far unreported (to our knowledge), cross term (χxyxy(3)+χxyyx(3)) of the nonlinear susceptibility tensor. Omission of this term leads to an error by a factor of 106 of the THz intensity obtained with certain polarization configurations.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008

C. D'Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. Le Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, New J. Phys. 10, 013015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

C. D'Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, Opt. Express 15, 4577 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, Laser Photonics Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

2000

Akturk, S.

C. D'Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. Le Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, New J. Phys. 10, 013015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bartel, T.

Cook, D. J.

Couairon, A.

C. D'Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. Le Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, New J. Phys. 10, 013015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. D'Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, J.

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D'Amico, C.

C. D'Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. Le Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, New J. Phys. 10, 013015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. D'Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eden, S.

Elsaesser, T.

Franco, M.

C. D'Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. Le Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, New J. Phys. 10, 013015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. D'Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaal, P.

Glownia, J. H.

Hochstrasser, R. M.

Houard, A.

C. D'Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. Le Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, New J. Phys. 10, 013015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. D'Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K. Y.

Kreß, M.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, Laser Photonics Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kress, M.

Le Bloas, J.

C. D'Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. Le Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, New J. Phys. 10, 013015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

C. D'Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. Le Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, New J. Phys. 10, 013015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Löffler, T.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, Laser Photonics Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kress, T. Löffler, S. Eden, M. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, Opt. Lett. 29, 1120 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mysyrowicz, A.

C. D'Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. Le Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, New J. Phys. 10, 013015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. D'Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prade, B.

C. D'Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. Le Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, New J. Phys. 10, 013015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. D'Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reimann, K.

Rodriguez, G.

Roskos, H. G.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, Laser Photonics Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kress, T. Löffler, S. Eden, M. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, Opt. Lett. 29, 1120 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. J.

Thomson, M.

Thomson, M. D.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, Laser Photonics Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tikhonchuk, V. T.

C. D'Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. Le Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, New J. Phys. 10, 013015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. D'Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woerner, M.

Xie, X.

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.-C.

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laser Photonics Rev.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, Laser Photonics Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys.

C. D'Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. Le Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, New J. Phys. 10, 013015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D'Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setups. In setup (a) frequency 2 ω is produced by a BBO crystal that can be rotated around the z propagation axis. Because of the crystal birefringence it is necessary in this case to consider the induced change of polarization at ω. In setup (b) the polarization vectors at ω and 2 ω can be varied independently.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variation of the THz intensity (in arbitrary units) with the angle α of the BBO crystal (squares). Comparison with two fits considering χ x x x x ( 3 ) only (dashed curve) and considering χ x x x x ( 3 ) and χ x y x y ( 3 ) + χ x y x y ( 3 ) (solid curve). Note that in the y plot, the dashed curve has been multiplied by 10 6 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Evolution of the THz field as function of the laser pulse energy for four different components of χ ( 3 ) . The two arrows indicate the thresholds for the appearance of terms.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison Between the Different χ ( 3 ) Coefficients for Laser Energies Below 100 μ J a

Equations (11)

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χ x y x y ( 3 ) = χ y x y x ( 3 ) ,
χ x y y x ( 3 ) = χ y x x y ( 3 ) ,
χ x x y y ( 3 ) = χ y y x x ( 3 ) ,
χ x x x x ( 3 ) = χ y y y y ( 3 ) = χ x x y y ( 3 ) + χ x y y x ( 3 ) + χ x y x y ( 3 ) ,
χ x y y y ( 3 ) = χ y x x x ( 3 ) = 0 .
E x ω = E 0 sin α cos α [ cos ( ω t φ e ) cos ( ω t φ 0 ) ] ,
E y ω = E 0 [ sin 2 α cos ( ω t φ e ) + cos 2 α cos ( ω t φ 0 ) ] ,
E x 2 ω = d eff cos 2 α cos α E 0 2 cos ( 2 ω t 2 φ 0 ) ,
E y 2 ω = d eff cos 2 α sin α E 0 2 cos ( 2 ω t 2 φ 0 ) ,
E x THz = χ x x x x ( 3 ) E x 2 ω E x ω E x ω + [ χ x y x y ( 3 ) + χ x y y x ( 3 ) ] E y 2 ω E x ω E y ω + χ x x y y ( 3 ) E x 2 ω E y ω E y ω ,
E y THz = χ y y y y ( 3 ) E y 2 ω E y ω E y ω + [ χ y x y x ( 3 ) + χ y x x y ( 3 ) ] E x 2 ω E y ω E x ω + χ y y x x ( 3 ) E y 2 ω E x ω E x ω .

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