Abstract

We report a dual-modal device capable of sequential acquisition of Raman spectroscopy (RS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) along a common optical axis. The device enhances application of both RS and OCT by precisely guiding RS acquisition with OCT images while also compensating for the lack of molecular specificity in OCT with the biochemical specificity of RS. We characterize the system performance and demonstrate the capability to identify structurally ambiguous features within an OCT image with RS in a scattering phantom, guide acquisition of RS from a localized malignancy in ex vivo breast tissue, and perform in vivo tissue analysis of a scab.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Mahadevan-Jansen, in Biomedical Photonics Handbook, T.Vo Dinh, ed. (CRC Press, 2003), p. 30.
  2. S. K. Majumder, M. D. Keller, M. C. Kelley, F. I. Boulos, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Comparison of autofluorescence, diffuse reflectance, and Raman spectroscopy for breast tissue discrimination,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).
    [PubMed]
  3. P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, and G. J. Puppels, Biophys. J. 85, 572 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, Nat. Med. 1, 970 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. H. Yang, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 81, 215 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Vinegoni, J. S. Bredfeldt, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, Opt. Express 12, 331 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. R. Tumlinson, L. P. Hariri, U. Utzinger, and J. K. Barton, Appl. Opt. 43, 113 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. C. Ko, L. P. Choo-Smith, M. Hewko, L. Leonardi, M. G. Sowa, C. C. Dong, P. Williams, and B. Cleghorn, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 031118 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. M. Rollins and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 24, 1484 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Express 3, 219 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Robichaux-Viehoever, E. M. Kanter, H. Shappell, D. Billheimer, H. Jones III, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, Appl. Spectrosc. 61, 986 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2005 (2)

A. C. Ko, L. P. Choo-Smith, M. Hewko, L. Leonardi, M. G. Sowa, C. C. Dong, P. Williams, and B. Cleghorn, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 031118 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Yang, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 81, 215 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

A. Mahadevan-Jansen, in Biomedical Photonics Handbook, T.Vo Dinh, ed. (CRC Press, 2003), p. 30.

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, and G. J. Puppels, Biophys. J. 85, 572 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1995 (1)

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, Nat. Med. 1, 970 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

Billheimer, D.

Boppart, S. A.

C. Vinegoni, J. S. Bredfeldt, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, Opt. Express 12, 331 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, Nat. Med. 1, 970 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boulos, F. I.

S. K. Majumder, M. D. Keller, M. C. Kelley, F. I. Boulos, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Comparison of autofluorescence, diffuse reflectance, and Raman spectroscopy for breast tissue discrimination,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Bouma, B.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, Nat. Med. 1, 970 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bredfeldt, J. S.

Brezinski, M. E.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, Nat. Med. 1, 970 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caspers, P. J.

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, and G. J. Puppels, Biophys. J. 85, 572 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choo-Smith, L. P.

A. C. Ko, L. P. Choo-Smith, M. Hewko, L. Leonardi, M. G. Sowa, C. C. Dong, P. Williams, and B. Cleghorn, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 031118 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cleghorn, B.

A. C. Ko, L. P. Choo-Smith, M. Hewko, L. Leonardi, M. G. Sowa, C. C. Dong, P. Williams, and B. Cleghorn, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 031118 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, C. C.

A. C. Ko, L. P. Choo-Smith, M. Hewko, L. Leonardi, M. G. Sowa, C. C. Dong, P. Williams, and B. Cleghorn, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 031118 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, Nat. Med. 1, 970 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hariri, L. P.

Hee, M. R.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, Nat. Med. 1, 970 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hewko, M.

A. C. Ko, L. P. Choo-Smith, M. Hewko, L. Leonardi, M. G. Sowa, C. C. Dong, P. Williams, and B. Cleghorn, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 031118 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Jones, H.

Kanter, E. M.

Keller, M. D.

S. K. Majumder, M. D. Keller, M. C. Kelley, F. I. Boulos, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Comparison of autofluorescence, diffuse reflectance, and Raman spectroscopy for breast tissue discrimination,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Kelley, M. C.

S. K. Majumder, M. D. Keller, M. C. Kelley, F. I. Boulos, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Comparison of autofluorescence, diffuse reflectance, and Raman spectroscopy for breast tissue discrimination,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Ko, A. C.

A. C. Ko, L. P. Choo-Smith, M. Hewko, L. Leonardi, M. G. Sowa, C. C. Dong, P. Williams, and B. Cleghorn, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 031118 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulkarni, M. D.

Leonardi, L.

A. C. Ko, L. P. Choo-Smith, M. Hewko, L. Leonardi, M. G. Sowa, C. C. Dong, P. Williams, and B. Cleghorn, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 031118 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lucassen, G. W.

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, and G. J. Puppels, Biophys. J. 85, 572 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

A. Robichaux-Viehoever, E. M. Kanter, H. Shappell, D. Billheimer, H. Jones III, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, Appl. Spectrosc. 61, 986 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mahadevan-Jansen, in Biomedical Photonics Handbook, T.Vo Dinh, ed. (CRC Press, 2003), p. 30.

S. K. Majumder, M. D. Keller, M. C. Kelley, F. I. Boulos, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Comparison of autofluorescence, diffuse reflectance, and Raman spectroscopy for breast tissue discrimination,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Majumder, S. K.

S. K. Majumder, M. D. Keller, M. C. Kelley, F. I. Boulos, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Comparison of autofluorescence, diffuse reflectance, and Raman spectroscopy for breast tissue discrimination,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Marks, D. L.

Puppels, G. J.

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, and G. J. Puppels, Biophys. J. 85, 572 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robichaux-Viehoever, A.

Rollins, A. M.

Shappell, H.

Southern, J. F.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, Nat. Med. 1, 970 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sowa, M. G.

A. C. Ko, L. P. Choo-Smith, M. Hewko, L. Leonardi, M. G. Sowa, C. C. Dong, P. Williams, and B. Cleghorn, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 031118 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, Nat. Med. 1, 970 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, Nat. Med. 1, 970 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tumlinson, A. R.

Ung-arunyawee, R.

Utzinger, U.

Vinegoni, C.

Williams, P.

A. C. Ko, L. P. Choo-Smith, M. Hewko, L. Leonardi, M. G. Sowa, C. C. Dong, P. Williams, and B. Cleghorn, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 031118 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C. H.

C. H. Yang, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 81, 215 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yazdanfar, S.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Biophys. J. (1)

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, and G. J. Puppels, Biophys. J. 85, 572 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

S. K. Majumder, M. D. Keller, M. C. Kelley, F. I. Boulos, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Comparison of autofluorescence, diffuse reflectance, and Raman spectroscopy for breast tissue discrimination,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).
[PubMed]

A. C. Ko, L. P. Choo-Smith, M. Hewko, L. Leonardi, M. G. Sowa, C. C. Dong, P. Williams, and B. Cleghorn, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 031118 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Med. (1)

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, Nat. Med. 1, 970 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. (1)

C. H. Yang, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 81, 215 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. Mahadevan-Jansen, in Biomedical Photonics Handbook, T.Vo Dinh, ed. (CRC Press, 2003), p. 30.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of RS-OCT system. C, circulator; RSOD, rapid scanning optical delay; BP, 785 bandpass; BSO, beam shaping optics; DM1, dichroic mirror at 990 nm ; DM2, dichroic mirror at 800 950 nm ; LP, long pass at 808 nm ; GP, galvanometer pair; BD, balanced detector; BPF, electronic bandpass filter; AI–AO DAQ, analog input–output data acquisition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

RS-OCT from a scattering gel with BMSB (solid curve) and naphthalene (dashed curve) showing similarities in OCT but biochemical differences in RS. Scale bar is 0.8 mm . An example of the red Raman targeting lines are shown. Scattering in the sample is due to 1 μ m polystyrene microspheres, whose spectral contribution can be seen from the common peak at 1001 cm 1 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

RS-OCT of normal (dashed curve) and malignant (solid curve) ex vivo breast sample where structural anomaly in OCT is spectrally characterized by pronounced protein peaks indicative of malignancy, while normal breast shows a strong lipid signature. Scale bar is 500 μ m .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

In vivo RS-OCT of a scab (dashed curve) and peripheral wound (solid curve) on the back of the finger. Scale bar is 1 mm . Inset shows wound and direction of scan. Arrows identify increased collagen peaks in scab spectrum.

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