Abstract

To be legible in high-ambient light conditions, organic light-emitting-diode displays should be optically designed to have a minimal reflectance without significantly affecting their overall efficiency. We demonstrate the use of an anode consisting of a partially absorbing metal layer and a multilayer distributed Bragg reflector to simultaneously absorb rather than reflect incoming light and to take advantage of a weak microcavity effect in the diode to improve light outcoupling.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. See, for example, G. Trapani, R. Pawlak, G. R. Carlson, and J. N. Gordon, “High durability circular polarizer for use with emissive displays,” U.S. patent 6,549,335 (April 15, 2003)
  2. H. Aziz, Y-F. Liew, H. M. Grandin, and Z. D. Popovic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 186 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Z. Wu, L. Wang, and Y. Qiu, Opt. Express 13, 1406 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. N. Krasnov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3853 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. E. Slusher and C. Weisbuch, Solid State Commun. 92, 149 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. Bulovic, V. B Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, and S. R. Forrest, Phys. Rev. B 58, 3730 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. A. Dobrowolski, L. Li, and R. A. Kemp, Appl. Opt. 34, 5673 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. A. VanSlyke, C. H. Chen, and C. W. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2160 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. S. Hung and C. H. Chen, Mater. Sci. Eng., R. 39, 143 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. American Institute of Physics Handbook, 3rd ed. (McGraw Hill), p. 6.
  12. D. Roth, C. Py, H. Fukutani, P. Marshall, M. Popela, and D. Leong, Presented at the 10th Canadian Semiconductor Technology Conference, Ottawa, Canada, August 13-17, 2001.

2005

2003

See, for example, G. Trapani, R. Pawlak, G. R. Carlson, and J. N. Gordon, “High durability circular polarizer for use with emissive displays,” U.S. patent 6,549,335 (April 15, 2003)

H. Aziz, Y-F. Liew, H. M. Grandin, and Z. D. Popovic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. N. Krasnov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3853 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Hung and C. H. Chen, Mater. Sci. Eng., R. 39, 143 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

D. Roth, C. Py, H. Fukutani, P. Marshall, M. Popela, and D. Leong, Presented at the 10th Canadian Semiconductor Technology Conference, Ottawa, Canada, August 13-17, 2001.

1998

V. Bulovic, V. B Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, and S. R. Forrest, Phys. Rev. B 58, 3730 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. A. VanSlyke, C. H. Chen, and C. W. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2160 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1994

R. E. Slusher and C. Weisbuch, Solid State Commun. 92, 149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Aziz, H.

H. Aziz, Y-F. Liew, H. M. Grandin, and Z. D. Popovic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B Khalfin, V.

V. Bulovic, V. B Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, and S. R. Forrest, Phys. Rev. B 58, 3730 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

V. Bulovic, V. B Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, and S. R. Forrest, Phys. Rev. B 58, 3730 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, P. E.

V. Bulovic, V. B Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, and S. R. Forrest, Phys. Rev. B 58, 3730 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carlson, G. R.

See, for example, G. Trapani, R. Pawlak, G. R. Carlson, and J. N. Gordon, “High durability circular polarizer for use with emissive displays,” U.S. patent 6,549,335 (April 15, 2003)

Chen, C. H.

L. S. Hung and C. H. Chen, Mater. Sci. Eng., R. 39, 143 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. A. VanSlyke, C. H. Chen, and C. W. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2160 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dobrowolski, J. A.

Dodabalapur, A.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

V. Bulovic, V. B Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, and S. R. Forrest, Phys. Rev. B 58, 3730 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fukutani, H.

D. Roth, C. Py, H. Fukutani, P. Marshall, M. Popela, and D. Leong, Presented at the 10th Canadian Semiconductor Technology Conference, Ottawa, Canada, August 13-17, 2001.

Garbuzov, D. Z.

V. Bulovic, V. B Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, and S. R. Forrest, Phys. Rev. B 58, 3730 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J. N.

See, for example, G. Trapani, R. Pawlak, G. R. Carlson, and J. N. Gordon, “High durability circular polarizer for use with emissive displays,” U.S. patent 6,549,335 (April 15, 2003)

Grandin, H. M.

H. Aziz, Y-F. Liew, H. M. Grandin, and Z. D. Popovic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gu, G.

V. Bulovic, V. B Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, and S. R. Forrest, Phys. Rev. B 58, 3730 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hung, L. S.

L. S. Hung and C. H. Chen, Mater. Sci. Eng., R. 39, 143 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, R. H.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kemp, R. A.

Krasnov, A. N.

A. N. Krasnov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3853 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leong, D.

D. Roth, C. Py, H. Fukutani, P. Marshall, M. Popela, and D. Leong, Presented at the 10th Canadian Semiconductor Technology Conference, Ottawa, Canada, August 13-17, 2001.

Li, L.

Liew, Y-F.

H. Aziz, Y-F. Liew, H. M. Grandin, and Z. D. Popovic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, P.

D. Roth, C. Py, H. Fukutani, P. Marshall, M. Popela, and D. Leong, Presented at the 10th Canadian Semiconductor Technology Conference, Ottawa, Canada, August 13-17, 2001.

Pawlak, R.

See, for example, G. Trapani, R. Pawlak, G. R. Carlson, and J. N. Gordon, “High durability circular polarizer for use with emissive displays,” U.S. patent 6,549,335 (April 15, 2003)

Popela, M.

D. Roth, C. Py, H. Fukutani, P. Marshall, M. Popela, and D. Leong, Presented at the 10th Canadian Semiconductor Technology Conference, Ottawa, Canada, August 13-17, 2001.

Popovic, Z. D.

H. Aziz, Y-F. Liew, H. M. Grandin, and Z. D. Popovic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Py, C.

D. Roth, C. Py, H. Fukutani, P. Marshall, M. Popela, and D. Leong, Presented at the 10th Canadian Semiconductor Technology Conference, Ottawa, Canada, August 13-17, 2001.

Qiu, Y.

Roth, D.

D. Roth, C. Py, H. Fukutani, P. Marshall, M. Popela, and D. Leong, Presented at the 10th Canadian Semiconductor Technology Conference, Ottawa, Canada, August 13-17, 2001.

Rothberg, L. J.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Slusher and C. Weisbuch, Solid State Commun. 92, 149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. W.

S. A. VanSlyke, C. H. Chen, and C. W. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2160 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Trapani, G.

See, for example, G. Trapani, R. Pawlak, G. R. Carlson, and J. N. Gordon, “High durability circular polarizer for use with emissive displays,” U.S. patent 6,549,335 (April 15, 2003)

VanSlyke, S. A.

S. A. VanSlyke, C. H. Chen, and C. W. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2160 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Weisbuch, C.

R. E. Slusher and C. Weisbuch, Solid State Commun. 92, 149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. A. VanSlyke, C. H. Chen, and C. W. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2160 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Aziz, Y-F. Liew, H. M. Grandin, and Z. D. Popovic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Krasnov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3853 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng., R.

L. S. Hung and C. H. Chen, Mater. Sci. Eng., R. 39, 143 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

V. Bulovic, V. B Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, and S. R. Forrest, Phys. Rev. B 58, 3730 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun.

R. E. Slusher and C. Weisbuch, Solid State Commun. 92, 149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other

American Institute of Physics Handbook, 3rd ed. (McGraw Hill), p. 6.

D. Roth, C. Py, H. Fukutani, P. Marshall, M. Popela, and D. Leong, Presented at the 10th Canadian Semiconductor Technology Conference, Ottawa, Canada, August 13-17, 2001.

See, for example, G. Trapani, R. Pawlak, G. R. Carlson, and J. N. Gordon, “High durability circular polarizer for use with emissive displays,” U.S. patent 6,549,335 (April 15, 2003)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Refractive index and calculated irradiance profiles (for λ = 518 nm ). Light is emitted through the semitransparent anode and DBR.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Top view of multisegment OLED device with (bottom) and without filter on a 5 cm × 5 cm glass slide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated and measured reflectance of filtered and unfiltered OLED. The electroluminescent spectrum of an Mg : Ag AlQ 3 NPB ITO OLED is added in the dashed curve (arbitrary units).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Luminance of filtered and unfiltered OLEDs as a function of voltage.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Luminous efficiency of filtered and unfiltered OLEDs as a function of voltage.

Equations (1)

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CR = L on + R D L ambient L off + R D L ambient ,

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