Abstract

We demonstrate a novel technique for coupling extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) harmonic radiation out of a femtosecond enhancement cavity. We use a small-period diffraction grating etched directly into the surface of a dielectric mirror. For the fundamental light, this element acts as a high reflector. For harmonic wavelengths, it acts as a diffraction grating, coupling XUV radiation out of the cavity. Using this method, we observed the third through twenty-first odd harmonics with a dramatic increase in usable power over previous results of high-harmonic generation at high repetition rates.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007 (2)

2006 (1)

2005 (5)

K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Opt. Express 13, 1672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Hermann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 436, 234 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Witte, R. Zinkstok, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. Eikema, Science 307, 400 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. I. Goray, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 536, 211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, Science 306, 2063 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Jones and J. Ye, Opt. Lett. 29, 2812 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1998).

1997 (1)

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnurer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, Science 278, 661 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. Lhuillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

1992 (1)

A. L'Huillier, P. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcou, P.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. Lhuillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L'Huillier, P. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bellini, M.

Brabec, T.

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, N. H.

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnurer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, Science 278, 661 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Candel, S.

A. L'Huillier, P. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cavalieri, S.

Corkum, P. B.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. Lhuillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corsi, C.

Cundiff, S. T.

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eikema, K.

S. Witte, R. Zinkstok, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. Eikema, Science 307, 400 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Felinto, D.

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, Science 306, 2063 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fermann, M. E.

Gohle, C.

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Hermann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 436, 234 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goray, L. I.

L. I. Goray, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 536, 211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Haggans, C. W.

Hänsch, T. W.

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Hermann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 436, 234 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartl, I.

Hermann, M.

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Hermann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 436, 234 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hogervorst, W.

S. Witte, R. Zinkstok, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. Eikema, Science 307, 400 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Hermann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 436, 234 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hudson, D. D.

Ivanov, M. Y.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. Lhuillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, R. J.

Kan, C.

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnurer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, Science 278, 661 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koppitsch, R.

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnurer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, Science 278, 661 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kostuk, R. K.

Krausz, F.

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Hermann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 436, 234 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnurer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, Science 278, 661 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kulander, K. C.

A. L'Huillier, P. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lawall, J. R.

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, Science 306, 2063 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lenzner, M.

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnurer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, Science 278, 661 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lewenstein, M.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. Lhuillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lhuillier, A.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. Lhuillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L'Huillier, A.

A. L'Huillier, P. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, L.

Marcinkevicius, A.

Marian, A.

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, Science 306, 2063 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Materazzi, M.

Moll, K. D.

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1998).

Rauschenberger, J.

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Hermann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 436, 234 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sartania, S.

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnurer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, Science 278, 661 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, K. J.

A. L'Huillier, P. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schibli, T. R.

Schnurer, M.

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnurer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, Science 278, 661 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schuessler, H. A.

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Hermann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 436, 234 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spielmann, C.

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnurer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, Science 278, 661 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stowe, M. C.

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, Science 306, 2063 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thorpe, M. J.

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ubachs, W.

S. Witte, R. Zinkstok, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. Eikema, Science 307, 400 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udem, T.

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Hermann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 436, 234 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witte, S.

S. Witte, R. Zinkstok, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. Eikema, Science 307, 400 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wobrauschek, P.

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnurer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, Science 278, 661 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

Ye, J.

Yost, D. C.

Zeng, H.

Zinkstok, R.

S. Witte, R. Zinkstok, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. Eikema, Science 307, 400 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nature (2)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Hermann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 436, 234 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

L. I. Goray, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 536, 211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. Lhuillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L'Huillier, P. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (2)

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnurer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, Science 278, 661 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, Science 306, 2063 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Witte, R. Zinkstok, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. Eikema, Science 307, 400 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1998).

http://www.ird-inc.com/axuvabs.html.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross section of the grating used to couple harmonic radiation out of the enhancement cavity. The grating is etched directly into the surface of a dielectric coating designed for high reflectivity and low dispersion at 1070 nm . The reflectivity of the dielectric mirror is 99.988%.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup. IC, input coupler; PD, photodiode; HR-SPG, high reflector with small period grating on surface. The top panel shows an enlarged image of the experimentally observed high-harmonic orders fluorescing on a glass plate coated with sodium salicylate. The threshold of the image was reduced around the twenty-first harmonic to show its mode structure.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Theoretical Efficiency of the Grating at Harmonic Wavelengths of the Incident 1070 nm Light and the Respective Outcoupled Powers Measured in the Experiment

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