Abstract

A near-field microscope coupled with a near-infrared (NIR) supercontinuum source is developed and applied to characterize optical modes in a three-dimensional (3D) woodpile photonic crystal (PC) possessing a NIR partial bandgap. Spatially resolved near-field intensity distributions under different illumination wavelengths demonstrate that the electric fields preferentially dwell in the polymer rods or in the gaps between rods, respectively, for frequencies below or above the stop gap, as predicted by the 3D finite-difference time-domain modeling. Near-field microspectroscopy further reveals that the position-dependent band-edge effect plays an important role in PC-based all-optical integrated devices.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Serbin and M. Gu, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 18, 221 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. B. Jia, J. Li, and M. Gu, Aust. J. Chem. 60, 484 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. Jia, X. Gan, and M. Gu, Optik (Jena) 115, 358 (2004).
  19. S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, MIT Photonic Bands software, http://ab-initio.mit.edu/mpb, 1999.
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2007 (4)

J. Li, B. Jia, G. Zhou, J. Serbin, C. Bullen, and M. Gu, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 19, 3276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, B. Jia, G. Zhou, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 254101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Jia, J. Li, and M. Gu, Aust. J. Chem. 60, 484 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R.-J. Liu, Z.-Y. Li, F. Zhou, and D.-Z. Zhang, Opt. Express 15, 15531 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (6)

J. Serbin and M. Gu, Opt. Express 14, 3563 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, B. Jia, G. Zhou, and M. Gu, Opt. Express 14, 10740 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Noda, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Serbin and M. Gu, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 18, 221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lu, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, C. A. Schuetz, and D. W. Prather, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. P. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. Van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Louvion, D. Gérard, J. Mouette, F. de Fornel, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, A. Rahmani, and S. Callard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 113907 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

B. Jia, X. Gan, and M. Gu, Optik (Jena) 115, 358 (2004).

P. Lodahl, A. F. Van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, Nature 430, 654 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

E. Fluck, N. F. Van Hulst, W. L. Vos, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. E 68, 156011 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

A. L. Campillo, J. W. P. Hsu, C. A. White, and A. Rosenberg, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech House, 2000).

1999 (2)

K. Sakoda, K. Ohtaka, and T. Ueta, Opt. Express 4, 481 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, MIT Photonic Bands software, http://ab-initio.mit.edu/mpb, 1999.

Bogaerts, W.

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. P. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. Van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bullen, C.

J. Li, B. Jia, G. Zhou, J. Serbin, C. Bullen, and M. Gu, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 19, 3276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Callard, S.

N. Louvion, D. Gérard, J. Mouette, F. de Fornel, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, A. Rahmani, and S. Callard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 113907 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campillo, A. L.

A. L. Campillo, J. W. P. Hsu, C. A. White, and A. Rosenberg, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Coen, S.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

de Fornel, F.

N. Louvion, D. Gérard, J. Mouette, F. de Fornel, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, A. Rahmani, and S. Callard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 113907 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dudley, J. M.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Engelen, R. J. P.

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. P. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. Van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fluck, E.

E. Fluck, N. F. Van Hulst, W. L. Vos, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. E 68, 156011 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gan, X.

B. Jia, X. Gan, and M. Gu, Optik (Jena) 115, 358 (2004).

Genty, G.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gérard, D.

N. Louvion, D. Gérard, J. Mouette, F. de Fornel, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, A. Rahmani, and S. Callard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 113907 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gersen, H.

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. P. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. Van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

J. Li, B. Jia, G. Zhou, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 254101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Jia, J. Li, and M. Gu, Aust. J. Chem. 60, 484 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, B. Jia, G. Zhou, J. Serbin, C. Bullen, and M. Gu, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 19, 3276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Serbin and M. Gu, Opt. Express 14, 3563 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, B. Jia, G. Zhou, and M. Gu, Opt. Express 14, 10740 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Serbin and M. Gu, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 18, 221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Jia, X. Gan, and M. Gu, Optik (Jena) 115, 358 (2004).

M. Straub and M. Gu, Opt. Lett. 27, 1824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hagness, S. C.

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech House, 2000).

Hsu, J. W. P.

A. L. Campillo, J. W. P. Hsu, C. A. White, and A. Rosenberg, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Irman, A.

P. Lodahl, A. F. Van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, Nature 430, 654 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jia, B.

J. Li, B. Jia, G. Zhou, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 254101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Jia, J. Li, and M. Gu, Aust. J. Chem. 60, 484 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, B. Jia, G. Zhou, J. Serbin, C. Bullen, and M. Gu, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 19, 3276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, B. Jia, G. Zhou, and M. Gu, Opt. Express 14, 10740 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Jia, X. Gan, and M. Gu, Optik (Jena) 115, 358 (2004).

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, MIT Photonic Bands software, http://ab-initio.mit.edu/mpb, 1999.

Johnson, S. G.

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, MIT Photonic Bands software, http://ab-initio.mit.edu/mpb, 1999.

Karle, T. J.

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. P. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. Van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korterik, J. P.

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. P. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. Van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krauss, T. F.

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. P. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. Van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuipers, L.

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. P. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. Van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Fluck, N. F. Van Hulst, W. L. Vos, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. E 68, 156011 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Letartre, X.

N. Louvion, D. Gérard, J. Mouette, F. de Fornel, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, A. Rahmani, and S. Callard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 113907 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

J. Li, B. Jia, G. Zhou, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 254101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Jia, J. Li, and M. Gu, Aust. J. Chem. 60, 484 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, B. Jia, G. Zhou, J. Serbin, C. Bullen, and M. Gu, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 19, 3276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, B. Jia, G. Zhou, and M. Gu, Opt. Express 14, 10740 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Z.-Y.

Liu, R.-J.

Lodahl, P.

P. Lodahl, A. F. Van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, Nature 430, 654 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Louvion, N.

N. Louvion, D. Gérard, J. Mouette, F. de Fornel, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, A. Rahmani, and S. Callard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 113907 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, Z.

Z. Lu, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, C. A. Schuetz, and D. W. Prather, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mouette, J.

N. Louvion, D. Gérard, J. Mouette, F. de Fornel, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, A. Rahmani, and S. Callard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 113907 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murakowski, J. A.

Z. Lu, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, C. A. Schuetz, and D. W. Prather, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikolaev, I. S.

P. Lodahl, A. F. Van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, Nature 430, 654 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noda, S.

Ohtaka, K.

Overgaag, K.

P. Lodahl, A. F. Van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, Nature 430, 654 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prather, D. W.

Z. Lu, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, C. A. Schuetz, and D. W. Prather, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rahmani, A.

N. Louvion, D. Gérard, J. Mouette, F. de Fornel, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, A. Rahmani, and S. Callard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 113907 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenberg, A.

A. L. Campillo, J. W. P. Hsu, C. A. White, and A. Rosenberg, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sakoda, K.

Schneider, G. J.

Z. Lu, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, C. A. Schuetz, and D. W. Prather, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuetz, C. A.

Z. Lu, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, C. A. Schuetz, and D. W. Prather, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seassal, C.

N. Louvion, D. Gérard, J. Mouette, F. de Fornel, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, A. Rahmani, and S. Callard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 113907 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serbin, J.

J. Li, B. Jia, G. Zhou, J. Serbin, C. Bullen, and M. Gu, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 19, 3276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Serbin and M. Gu, Opt. Express 14, 3563 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Serbin and M. Gu, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 18, 221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shi, S.

Z. Lu, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, C. A. Schuetz, and D. W. Prather, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Straub, M.

Taflove, A.

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech House, 2000).

Ueta, T.

Van Driel, A. F.

P. Lodahl, A. F. Van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, Nature 430, 654 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Hulst, N. F.

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. P. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. Van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Fluck, N. F. Van Hulst, W. L. Vos, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. E 68, 156011 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vanmaekelbergh, D.

P. Lodahl, A. F. Van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, Nature 430, 654 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vos, W. L.

P. Lodahl, A. F. Van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, Nature 430, 654 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Fluck, N. F. Van Hulst, W. L. Vos, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. E 68, 156011 (2003).
[CrossRef]

White, C. A.

A. L. Campillo, J. W. P. Hsu, C. A. White, and A. Rosenberg, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D.-Z.

Zhou, F.

Zhou, G.

J. Li, B. Jia, G. Zhou, J. Serbin, C. Bullen, and M. Gu, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 19, 3276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, B. Jia, G. Zhou, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 254101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, B. Jia, G. Zhou, and M. Gu, Opt. Express 14, 10740 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) (2)

J. Li, B. Jia, G. Zhou, J. Serbin, C. Bullen, and M. Gu, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 19, 3276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Serbin and M. Gu, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 18, 221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Li, B. Jia, G. Zhou, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 254101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aust. J. Chem. (1)

B. Jia, J. Li, and M. Gu, Aust. J. Chem. 60, 484 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. L. Campillo, J. W. P. Hsu, C. A. White, and A. Rosenberg, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nature (1)

P. Lodahl, A. F. Van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, Nature 430, 654 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optik (Jena) (1)

B. Jia, X. Gan, and M. Gu, Optik (Jena) 115, 358 (2004).

Phys. Rev. E (1)

E. Fluck, N. F. Van Hulst, W. L. Vos, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. E 68, 156011 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

Z. Lu, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, C. A. Schuetz, and D. W. Prather, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. P. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. Van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Louvion, D. Gérard, J. Mouette, F. de Fornel, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, A. Rahmani, and S. Callard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 113907 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, MIT Photonic Bands software, http://ab-initio.mit.edu/mpb, 1999.

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech House, 2000).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Setup for supercontinuum generation and coupling into a SNOM. ISO: isolator; AL: achromatic lens. (b) Supercontinuum spectrum. The top inset is a SEM image of the cross section of the PCF. The bottom inset is the mode output of the supercontinuum.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Transmission spectrum of the woodpile PC. Inset, a SEM image of the PC. Scale bar 2 μ m . (b) The calculated band diagram, showing a stop gap in the Γ X direction. (c), (d) Calculated electric field intensity in a plane perpendicular to the Γ X direction on (c) the lower- and (d) higher-energy band edges.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Topographic image of the PC. Scale bar 1 μ m . (b)–(d) Near-field images taken when (b) the supercontinuum illumination was utilized and (c), (d) illumination wavelengths fall into the higher (H)- and lower (L)- energy band edges, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Normalized near-field intensities at five points a to e (see inset) measured at wavelengths L and H. (b) Normalized far- and near-field transmission spectra from the 3D PC measured by a SNOM probe when it was positioned in the gap and polymer rod regions.

Metrics