Abstract

We demonstrate high-fidelity optical arbitrary waveform generation with 5GHz waveform switching via time-domain multiplexing. Compact, integrated waveform shapers based on silica arrayed-waveguide grating pairs with 10GHz channel spacing are used to shape (line-by-line) two different waveforms from the output of a 10-mode×10GHz optical frequency comb generator. Characterization of the time multiplexer’s complex transfer function (amplitude and phase) by frequency-resolved optical gating permits compensation of its impact on the switched waveforms and matching of the measured and target waveforms to better than G=5%.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Miyamoto, K. Mandai, T. Kurokawa, S. Takeda, T. Shioda, and H. Tsuda, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 721 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, Opt. Express 15, 9977 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, C. B. Huang, H. Miao, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 1163 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. Cao, A. Karalar, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, B. H. Kolner, and S. J. B. Yoo, Opt. Lett. 32, 865 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2739 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 32, 3242 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. E. Leaird, Z. Jiang, and A. M. Weiner, Electron. Lett. 41, 817 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, K. Okamoto, D. L. Harris, B. H. Kolner, Z. Ding, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 852 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, Electron. Lett. 43, 1039 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. K. Fontaine, D. J. Geisler, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, F. M. Soares, A. Karalar, J. Yang, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OTuC7.
    [PubMed]
  11. R. Trebino, Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating: The Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses (Kluwer Academic, 2000).

2008 (1)

N. K. Fontaine, D. J. Geisler, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, F. M. Soares, A. Karalar, J. Yang, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OTuC7.
[PubMed]

2007 (6)

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, C. B. Huang, H. Miao, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 1163 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, K. Okamoto, D. L. Harris, B. H. Kolner, Z. Ding, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 852 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, Electron. Lett. 43, 1039 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. Cao, A. Karalar, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, B. H. Kolner, and S. J. B. Yoo, Opt. Lett. 32, 865 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, Opt. Express 15, 9977 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 32, 3242 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

D. Miyamoto, K. Mandai, T. Kurokawa, S. Takeda, T. Shioda, and H. Tsuda, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 721 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2739 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Leaird, Z. Jiang, and A. M. Weiner, Electron. Lett. 41, 817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. Trebino, Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating: The Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses (Kluwer Academic, 2000).

Cao, J.

Cong, W.

C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, K. Okamoto, D. L. Harris, B. H. Kolner, Z. Ding, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 852 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Delfyett, P. J.

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2739 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Z.

C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, K. Okamoto, D. L. Harris, B. H. Kolner, Z. Ding, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 852 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fontaine, N. K.

N. K. Fontaine, D. J. Geisler, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, F. M. Soares, A. Karalar, J. Yang, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OTuC7.
[PubMed]

C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, K. Okamoto, D. L. Harris, B. H. Kolner, Z. Ding, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 852 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, Opt. Express 15, 9977 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. Cao, A. Karalar, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, B. H. Kolner, and S. J. B. Yoo, Opt. Lett. 32, 865 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gee, S.

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2739 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Geisler, D. J.

N. K. Fontaine, D. J. Geisler, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, F. M. Soares, A. Karalar, J. Yang, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OTuC7.
[PubMed]

Harris, D. L.

C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, K. Okamoto, D. L. Harris, B. H. Kolner, Z. Ding, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 852 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heritage, J. P.

N. K. Fontaine, D. J. Geisler, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, F. M. Soares, A. Karalar, J. Yang, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OTuC7.
[PubMed]

C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, K. Okamoto, D. L. Harris, B. H. Kolner, Z. Ding, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 852 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, Opt. Express 15, 9977 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. Cao, A. Karalar, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, B. H. Kolner, and S. J. B. Yoo, Opt. Lett. 32, 865 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hernandez, V. J.

C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, K. Okamoto, D. L. Harris, B. H. Kolner, Z. Ding, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 852 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. B.

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, C. B. Huang, H. Miao, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 1163 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.-B.

Imai, K.

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, C. B. Huang, H. Miao, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 1163 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Izutsu, M.

T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, Electron. Lett. 43, 1039 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, C. B. Huang, H. Miao, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 1163 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Leaird, Z. Jiang, and A. M. Weiner, Electron. Lett. 41, 817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Karalar, A.

N. K. Fontaine, D. J. Geisler, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, F. M. Soares, A. Karalar, J. Yang, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OTuC7.
[PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. Cao, A. Karalar, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, B. H. Kolner, and S. J. B. Yoo, Opt. Lett. 32, 865 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawanishi, T.

T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, Electron. Lett. 43, 1039 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kolner, B. H.

Kourogi, M.

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, C. B. Huang, H. Miao, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 1163 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kurokawa, T.

D. Miyamoto, K. Mandai, T. Kurokawa, S. Takeda, T. Shioda, and H. Tsuda, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 721 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leaird, D. E.

C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 32, 3242 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, C. B. Huang, H. Miao, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 1163 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Leaird, Z. Jiang, and A. M. Weiner, Electron. Lett. 41, 817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mandai, K.

D. Miyamoto, K. Mandai, T. Kurokawa, S. Takeda, T. Shioda, and H. Tsuda, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 721 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miao, H.

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, C. B. Huang, H. Miao, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 1163 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, D.

D. Miyamoto, K. Mandai, T. Kurokawa, S. Takeda, T. Shioda, and H. Tsuda, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 721 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

N. K. Fontaine, D. J. Geisler, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, F. M. Soares, A. Karalar, J. Yang, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OTuC7.
[PubMed]

C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, K. Okamoto, D. L. Harris, B. H. Kolner, Z. Ding, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 852 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, Opt. Express 15, 9977 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. Cao, A. Karalar, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, B. H. Kolner, and S. J. B. Yoo, Opt. Lett. 32, 865 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozharar, S.

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2739 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Quinlan, F.

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2739 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, T.

T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, Electron. Lett. 43, 1039 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Scott, R. P.

N. K. Fontaine, D. J. Geisler, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, F. M. Soares, A. Karalar, J. Yang, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OTuC7.
[PubMed]

C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, K. Okamoto, D. L. Harris, B. H. Kolner, Z. Ding, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 852 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, Opt. Express 15, 9977 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. Cao, A. Karalar, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, B. H. Kolner, and S. J. B. Yoo, Opt. Lett. 32, 865 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shioda, T.

D. Miyamoto, K. Mandai, T. Kurokawa, S. Takeda, T. Shioda, and H. Tsuda, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 721 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Soares, F. M.

N. K. Fontaine, D. J. Geisler, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, F. M. Soares, A. Karalar, J. Yang, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OTuC7.
[PubMed]

Takeda, S.

D. Miyamoto, K. Mandai, T. Kurokawa, S. Takeda, T. Shioda, and H. Tsuda, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 721 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Trebino, R.

R. Trebino, Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating: The Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses (Kluwer Academic, 2000).

Tsuda, H.

D. Miyamoto, K. Mandai, T. Kurokawa, S. Takeda, T. Shioda, and H. Tsuda, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 721 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 32, 3242 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, C. B. Huang, H. Miao, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 1163 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Leaird, Z. Jiang, and A. M. Weiner, Electron. Lett. 41, 817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

N. K. Fontaine, D. J. Geisler, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, F. M. Soares, A. Karalar, J. Yang, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OTuC7.
[PubMed]

C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, K. Okamoto, D. L. Harris, B. H. Kolner, Z. Ding, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 852 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

N. K. Fontaine, D. J. Geisler, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, F. M. Soares, A. Karalar, J. Yang, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OTuC7.
[PubMed]

Yoo, S. J. B.

N. K. Fontaine, D. J. Geisler, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, F. M. Soares, A. Karalar, J. Yang, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OTuC7.
[PubMed]

C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, K. Okamoto, D. L. Harris, B. H. Kolner, Z. Ding, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 852 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, Opt. Express 15, 9977 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. Cao, A. Karalar, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, B. H. Kolner, and S. J. B. Yoo, Opt. Lett. 32, 865 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (2)

D. E. Leaird, Z. Jiang, and A. M. Weiner, Electron. Lett. 41, 817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, Electron. Lett. 43, 1039 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, C. B. Huang, H. Miao, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 1163 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

D. Miyamoto, K. Mandai, T. Kurokawa, S. Takeda, T. Shioda, and H. Tsuda, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 721 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, K. Okamoto, D. L. Harris, B. H. Kolner, Z. Ding, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 852 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2739 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (2)

N. K. Fontaine, D. J. Geisler, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, F. M. Soares, A. Karalar, J. Yang, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OTuC7.
[PubMed]

R. Trebino, Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating: The Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses (Kluwer Academic, 2000).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of the time-multiplexed OAWG system: OFCG, optical frequency comb generator; MZS, Mach–Zehnder switch; DCA, digital communications analyzer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time-multiplexer characteristics of one input port: (a) DCA measurement. (b) Complex transfer function retrieved from XFROG (dotted without MZS).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Switched waveform data ( A - B - A - B waveform): (a) DCA trace, (b) XFROG trace, (c) retrieved temporal intensity and phase.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Retrieved A waveform without correction. (a) Time domain showing the target (dotted) and measured (solid) waveforms. (b) Spectral domain showing the target (crosses) and measured (bars and circles) waveforms. G = 12.2 % .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Retrieved A waveform after correction: (a) Time domain showing the target (dotted) and measured (solid) waveforms. (b) Spectral domain showing the target (crosses) and measured (bars and circles) waveforms. G = 3.96 % .

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

G = I FROG Target ( ω , τ ) α I FROG Meas. ( ω , τ ) 2 d ω d τ [ I FROG Target ( ω , τ ) ] 2 d ω d τ ,
I FROG SHG ( ω , τ ) E ( t ) E ( t τ ) exp ( i ω t ) d t 2 ,

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