Abstract

We present an efficient design for direct coupling between a spiral-shaped and a semicircle-shaped microcavity (μ-cavity) as an alternative to traditional evanescent wave coupling for planar integrated photonic technology. We observe the preservation of the high Q-value of the spiral oscillator when coupled to a semicircle under current injection using an AlGaAs single-quantum-well heterostructure. With slight alterations to the directly coupled μ-cavity configuration, such as coupling shape and overlap distance, the number of observed modes and output intensity are changed. AlGaAs and InGaN spiral-shaped microcavities have unidirectional emission normal to the spiral notch.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. D. Chern, A. W. Poon, R. K. Chang, T. Ben-Messaoud, O. Alloschery, E. Toussaere, J. Zyss, and S.-Y. Kuo, Opt. Lett. 29, 1674 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. W. Poon, F. Courvoisier, and R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 26, 632 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. I. Braun, G. Ihlein, F. Laeri, J. U. Nöckel, G. Schulz-Ekloff, F. Schuth, U. Vietze, O. Weiss, and D. Wohrle, Appl. Phys. B 70, 335 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Q.-Y. Lu, X.-H. Chen, W.-H. Guo, L.-J. Yu, Y.-Z. Huang, J. Wang, and Y. Luo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 359 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature , 421, 925 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and R. K. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1710 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, G. Chen, H. L. Grossman, and R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 21, 1609 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. U. Nöckel and A. D. Stone, Nature 385, 45 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. N. B. Rex, H. E. Tureci, H. G. L. Schwefel, R. K. Chang, and A. D. Stone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 094102 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Wiersig and M. Hentschel, Phys. Rev. A 73, 031802(R) (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Kneissl, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, N. M. Johnson, G. D. Chern, and R. K. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2485 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Kneissl, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, G. D. Chern, R. K. Chang, and N. M. Johnson, in 27th International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors (American Institute of Physics, 2005), pp. 1517-1520 .
  15. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, 1986).
  16. G. D. Chern, 'Lasing spiral and square-shaped optical microcavities,' Ph.D. dissertation (Yale University, 2005), p. 60.

2006 (1)

J. Wiersig and M. Hentschel, Phys. Rev. A 73, 031802(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

M. Kneissl, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, N. M. Johnson, G. D. Chern, and R. K. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2485 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q.-Y. Lu, X.-H. Chen, W.-H. Guo, L.-J. Yu, Y.-Z. Huang, J. Wang, and Y. Luo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Chern, A. W. Poon, R. K. Chang, T. Ben-Messaoud, O. Alloschery, E. Toussaere, J. Zyss, and S.-Y. Kuo, Opt. Lett. 29, 1674 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature , 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and R. K. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1710 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

N. B. Rex, H. E. Tureci, H. G. L. Schwefel, R. K. Chang, and A. D. Stone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 094102 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

I. Braun, G. Ihlein, F. Laeri, J. U. Nöckel, G. Schulz-Ekloff, F. Schuth, U. Vietze, O. Weiss, and D. Wohrle, Appl. Phys. B 70, 335 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

J. U. Nöckel and A. D. Stone, Nature 385, 45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1992 (1)

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Alloschery, O.

Armani, D. K.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature , 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ben-Messaoud, T.

Braun, I.

I. Braun, G. Ihlein, F. Laeri, J. U. Nöckel, G. Schulz-Ekloff, F. Schuth, U. Vietze, O. Weiss, and D. Wohrle, Appl. Phys. B 70, 335 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, R. K.

G. D. Chern, A. W. Poon, R. K. Chang, T. Ben-Messaoud, O. Alloschery, E. Toussaere, J. Zyss, and S.-Y. Kuo, Opt. Lett. 29, 1674 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kneissl, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, N. M. Johnson, G. D. Chern, and R. K. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2485 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and R. K. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1710 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. B. Rex, H. E. Tureci, H. G. L. Schwefel, R. K. Chang, and A. D. Stone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 094102 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Poon, F. Courvoisier, and R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 26, 632 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, G. Chen, H. L. Grossman, and R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 21, 1609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Kneissl, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, G. D. Chern, R. K. Chang, and N. M. Johnson, in 27th International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors (American Institute of Physics, 2005), pp. 1517-1520 .

Chen, G.

Chen, X.-H.

Q.-Y. Lu, X.-H. Chen, W.-H. Guo, L.-J. Yu, Y.-Z. Huang, J. Wang, and Y. Luo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chern, G. D.

M. Kneissl, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, N. M. Johnson, G. D. Chern, and R. K. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2485 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Chern, A. W. Poon, R. K. Chang, T. Ben-Messaoud, O. Alloschery, E. Toussaere, J. Zyss, and S.-Y. Kuo, Opt. Lett. 29, 1674 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and R. K. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1710 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Chern, 'Lasing spiral and square-shaped optical microcavities,' Ph.D. dissertation (Yale University, 2005), p. 60.

M. Kneissl, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, G. D. Chern, R. K. Chang, and N. M. Johnson, in 27th International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors (American Institute of Physics, 2005), pp. 1517-1520 .

Cho, A. Y.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Courvoisier, F.

Faist, J.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gmachl, C.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grossman, H. L.

Guo, W.-H.

Q.-Y. Lu, X.-H. Chen, W.-H. Guo, L.-J. Yu, Y.-Z. Huang, J. Wang, and Y. Luo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hentschel, M.

J. Wiersig and M. Hentschel, Phys. Rev. A 73, 031802(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.-Z.

Q.-Y. Lu, X.-H. Chen, W.-H. Guo, L.-J. Yu, Y.-Z. Huang, J. Wang, and Y. Luo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ihlein, G.

I. Braun, G. Ihlein, F. Laeri, J. U. Nöckel, G. Schulz-Ekloff, F. Schuth, U. Vietze, O. Weiss, and D. Wohrle, Appl. Phys. B 70, 335 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, N. M.

M. Kneissl, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, N. M. Johnson, G. D. Chern, and R. K. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2485 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and R. K. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1710 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Kneissl, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, G. D. Chern, R. K. Chang, and N. M. Johnson, in 27th International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors (American Institute of Physics, 2005), pp. 1517-1520 .

Kippenberg, T. J.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature , 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kneissl, M.

M. Kneissl, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, N. M. Johnson, G. D. Chern, and R. K. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2485 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and R. K. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1710 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Kneissl, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, G. D. Chern, R. K. Chang, and N. M. Johnson, in 27th International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors (American Institute of Physics, 2005), pp. 1517-1520 .

Kuo, S.-Y.

Laeri, F.

I. Braun, G. Ihlein, F. Laeri, J. U. Nöckel, G. Schulz-Ekloff, F. Schuth, U. Vietze, O. Weiss, and D. Wohrle, Appl. Phys. B 70, 335 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Levi, A. F. J.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Logan, R. A.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Q.-Y.

Q.-Y. Lu, X.-H. Chen, W.-H. Guo, L.-J. Yu, Y.-Z. Huang, J. Wang, and Y. Luo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

Q.-Y. Lu, X.-H. Chen, W.-H. Guo, L.-J. Yu, Y.-Z. Huang, J. Wang, and Y. Luo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McCall, S. L.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Miyashita, N.

M. Kneissl, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, N. M. Johnson, G. D. Chern, and R. K. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2485 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Kneissl, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, G. D. Chern, R. K. Chang, and N. M. Johnson, in 27th International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors (American Institute of Physics, 2005), pp. 1517-1520 .

Narimanov, E. E.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nöckel, J. U.

I. Braun, G. Ihlein, F. Laeri, J. U. Nöckel, G. Schulz-Ekloff, F. Schuth, U. Vietze, O. Weiss, and D. Wohrle, Appl. Phys. B 70, 335 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. U. Nöckel and A. D. Stone, Nature 385, 45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, G. Chen, H. L. Grossman, and R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 21, 1609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pearton, S. J.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Poon, A. W.

Rex, N. B.

N. B. Rex, H. E. Tureci, H. G. L. Schwefel, R. K. Chang, and A. D. Stone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 094102 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulz-Ekloff, G.

I. Braun, G. Ihlein, F. Laeri, J. U. Nöckel, G. Schulz-Ekloff, F. Schuth, U. Vietze, O. Weiss, and D. Wohrle, Appl. Phys. B 70, 335 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schuth, F.

I. Braun, G. Ihlein, F. Laeri, J. U. Nöckel, G. Schulz-Ekloff, F. Schuth, U. Vietze, O. Weiss, and D. Wohrle, Appl. Phys. B 70, 335 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schwefel, H. G. L.

N. B. Rex, H. E. Tureci, H. G. L. Schwefel, R. K. Chang, and A. D. Stone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 094102 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, 1986).

Sivco, D. L.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slusher, R. E.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Spillane, S. M.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature , 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stone, A. D.

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and R. K. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1710 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. B. Rex, H. E. Tureci, H. G. L. Schwefel, R. K. Chang, and A. D. Stone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 094102 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. U. Nöckel and A. D. Stone, Nature 385, 45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, G. Chen, H. L. Grossman, and R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 21, 1609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Teepe, M.

M. Kneissl, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, N. M. Johnson, G. D. Chern, and R. K. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2485 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Kneissl, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, G. D. Chern, R. K. Chang, and N. M. Johnson, in 27th International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors (American Institute of Physics, 2005), pp. 1517-1520 .

Toussaere, E.

Tureci, H. E.

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and R. K. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1710 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. B. Rex, H. E. Tureci, H. G. L. Schwefel, R. K. Chang, and A. D. Stone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 094102 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vahala, K. J.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature , 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vietze, U.

I. Braun, G. Ihlein, F. Laeri, J. U. Nöckel, G. Schulz-Ekloff, F. Schuth, U. Vietze, O. Weiss, and D. Wohrle, Appl. Phys. B 70, 335 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Q.-Y. Lu, X.-H. Chen, W.-H. Guo, L.-J. Yu, Y.-Z. Huang, J. Wang, and Y. Luo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, O.

I. Braun, G. Ihlein, F. Laeri, J. U. Nöckel, G. Schulz-Ekloff, F. Schuth, U. Vietze, O. Weiss, and D. Wohrle, Appl. Phys. B 70, 335 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wiersig, J.

J. Wiersig and M. Hentschel, Phys. Rev. A 73, 031802(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wohrle, D.

I. Braun, G. Ihlein, F. Laeri, J. U. Nöckel, G. Schulz-Ekloff, F. Schuth, U. Vietze, O. Weiss, and D. Wohrle, Appl. Phys. B 70, 335 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yu, L.-J.

Q.-Y. Lu, X.-H. Chen, W.-H. Guo, L.-J. Yu, Y.-Z. Huang, J. Wang, and Y. Luo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zyss, J.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

I. Braun, G. Ihlein, F. Laeri, J. U. Nöckel, G. Schulz-Ekloff, F. Schuth, U. Vietze, O. Weiss, and D. Wohrle, Appl. Phys. B 70, 335 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and R. K. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1710 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Kneissl, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, N. M. Johnson, G. D. Chern, and R. K. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2485 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Q.-Y. Lu, X.-H. Chen, W.-H. Guo, L.-J. Yu, Y.-Z. Huang, J. Wang, and Y. Luo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature , 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. U. Nöckel and A. D. Stone, Nature 385, 45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. Wiersig and M. Hentschel, Phys. Rev. A 73, 031802(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

N. B. Rex, H. E. Tureci, H. G. L. Schwefel, R. K. Chang, and A. D. Stone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 094102 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

M. Kneissl, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, G. D. Chern, R. K. Chang, and N. M. Johnson, in 27th International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors (American Institute of Physics, 2005), pp. 1517-1520 .

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, 1986).

G. D. Chern, 'Lasing spiral and square-shaped optical microcavities,' Ph.D. dissertation (Yale University, 2005), p. 60.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Image profile of TE and TM emission from the sidewall of an InGaN spiral-shaped μ-disk optically ring pumped with 440 kW cm 2 of 355 nm radiation. (b) Image profile of an optically ring-pumped semicircle μ-disk at different observation angles θ. (c) Far-field pattern from a semicircle μ-disk. (d) Image profile of TE and TM emission from a directly coupled spiral and semicircle. The spiral and semicircle are separately optically ring pumped at 440 and 120 kW cm 2 , respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Scanning electron microscopy image of directly coupled AlGaAs cavities with p-contact ring electrodes near the perimeter. The electrode for each μ-disk is isolated from the others. (b) Normalized peak output intensity as a function of the spiral pumping rate I sp for the three different configurations shown in the insets: top, the isolated spiral case; middle, the 100% overlap between the spiral and the semicircle; bottom, the fluted case.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Emission spectra from directly coupled AlGaAs cavities with different percentages of overlap along the length of the notch. The emission spectrum from the fluted-junction cavity is also shown.

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