Abstract

We demonstrate the generation of optically carried, broadly tunable, millimeter-wave signals with a dual-frequency single-axis Nd:YAG laser. A frequency difference as high as 127GHz is reached thanks to an intracavity electro-optically tunable etalon made of lead zirconate tantalate (PLZT) ceramic. We show that the available frequency range is actually limited by the bandwidth of the amplification medium, namely, far beyond the usually accepted free spectral range value in the case of a single-axis laser. Both coarse discrete and fine continuous tunabilities are obtained with the same voltage-controlled device, opening the way to widely tunable low-phase-noise optically carried submillimeter or even terahertz sources.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, S. N. Lea, and G. M. Tino, Opt. Commun. 104, 339 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Y. Frankel and R. D. Esman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 191 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. O. Durand, D. Dolfi, V. Laude, J.-P. Huignard, and J. Chazelas, Opt. Lett. 21, 803 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Li, A. J. C. Vieira, S. M. Goldwasser, and P. R. Herczfeld, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 2048 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Brunel, O. Emile, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, B. Ferrand, and E. Molva, Opt. Rev. 4, 550 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Alouini, B. Benazet, M. Vallet, M. Brunel, P. Di Bin, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, and P. Thony, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 367 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Brunel, A. Amon, and M. Vallet, Opt. Lett. 30, 2418 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. Czarny, M. Alouini, C. Larat, M. Krakowski, and D. Dolfi, Electron. Lett. 40, 942 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Bourderionnet, D. Dolfi, J.-P. Huignard, B. Ea-Kim, E. Corbel, D. Purer, A. Poudoulec, and D. Gauden, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1101 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Morvan, D. Dolfi, J.-P. Huignard, S. Blanc, M. Brunel, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, and A. Le Floch, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CTuL5.

2006 (1)

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

R. Czarny, M. Alouini, C. Larat, M. Krakowski, and D. Dolfi, Electron. Lett. 40, 942 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Bourderionnet, D. Dolfi, J.-P. Huignard, B. Ea-Kim, E. Corbel, D. Purer, A. Poudoulec, and D. Gauden, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. Alouini, B. Benazet, M. Vallet, M. Brunel, P. Di Bin, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, and P. Thony, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 367 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, A. J. C. Vieira, S. M. Goldwasser, and P. R. Herczfeld, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 2048 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Brunel, O. Emile, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, B. Ferrand, and E. Molva, Opt. Rev. 4, 550 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

M. Y. Frankel and R. D. Esman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 191 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, S. N. Lea, and G. M. Tino, Opt. Commun. 104, 339 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Alouini, M.

R. Czarny, M. Alouini, C. Larat, M. Krakowski, and D. Dolfi, Electron. Lett. 40, 942 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Alouini, B. Benazet, M. Vallet, M. Brunel, P. Di Bin, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, and P. Thony, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 367 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Amon, A.

Amy-Klein, A.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Benazet, B.

M. Alouini, B. Benazet, M. Vallet, M. Brunel, P. Di Bin, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, and P. Thony, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 367 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bize, S.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blanc, S.

L. Morvan, D. Dolfi, J.-P. Huignard, S. Blanc, M. Brunel, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, and A. Le Floch, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CTuL5.

Bourderionnet, J.

J. Bourderionnet, D. Dolfi, J.-P. Huignard, B. Ea-Kim, E. Corbel, D. Purer, A. Poudoulec, and D. Gauden, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bretenaker, F.

M. Alouini, B. Benazet, M. Vallet, M. Brunel, P. Di Bin, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, and P. Thony, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 367 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Brunel, O. Emile, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, B. Ferrand, and E. Molva, Opt. Rev. 4, 550 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Morvan, D. Dolfi, J.-P. Huignard, S. Blanc, M. Brunel, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, and A. Le Floch, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CTuL5.

Brunel, M.

M. Brunel, A. Amon, and M. Vallet, Opt. Lett. 30, 2418 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Alouini, B. Benazet, M. Vallet, M. Brunel, P. Di Bin, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, and P. Thony, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 367 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Brunel, O. Emile, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, B. Ferrand, and E. Molva, Opt. Rev. 4, 550 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Morvan, D. Dolfi, J.-P. Huignard, S. Blanc, M. Brunel, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, and A. Le Floch, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CTuL5.

Chardonnet, Ch.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chazelas, J.

Clairon, A.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, S. N. Lea, and G. M. Tino, Opt. Commun. 104, 339 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Corbel, E.

J. Bourderionnet, D. Dolfi, J.-P. Huignard, B. Ea-Kim, E. Corbel, D. Purer, A. Poudoulec, and D. Gauden, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Czarny, R.

R. Czarny, M. Alouini, C. Larat, M. Krakowski, and D. Dolfi, Electron. Lett. 40, 942 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Daussy, Ch.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Di Bin, P.

M. Alouini, B. Benazet, M. Vallet, M. Brunel, P. Di Bin, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, and P. Thony, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 367 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dolfi, D.

J. Bourderionnet, D. Dolfi, J.-P. Huignard, B. Ea-Kim, E. Corbel, D. Purer, A. Poudoulec, and D. Gauden, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Czarny, M. Alouini, C. Larat, M. Krakowski, and D. Dolfi, Electron. Lett. 40, 942 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Durand, D. Dolfi, V. Laude, J.-P. Huignard, and J. Chazelas, Opt. Lett. 21, 803 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Morvan, D. Dolfi, J.-P. Huignard, S. Blanc, M. Brunel, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, and A. Le Floch, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CTuL5.

Durand, O.

Ea-Kim, B.

J. Bourderionnet, D. Dolfi, J.-P. Huignard, B. Ea-Kim, E. Corbel, D. Purer, A. Poudoulec, and D. Gauden, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Emile, O.

M. Brunel, O. Emile, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, B. Ferrand, and E. Molva, Opt. Rev. 4, 550 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Esman, R. D.

M. Y. Frankel and R. D. Esman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 191 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ferrand, B.

M. Brunel, O. Emile, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, B. Ferrand, and E. Molva, Opt. Rev. 4, 550 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Frankel, M. Y.

M. Y. Frankel and R. D. Esman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 191 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gauden, D.

J. Bourderionnet, D. Dolfi, J.-P. Huignard, B. Ea-Kim, E. Corbel, D. Purer, A. Poudoulec, and D. Gauden, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goldwasser, S. M.

Y. Li, A. J. C. Vieira, S. M. Goldwasser, and P. R. Herczfeld, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 2048 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Herczfeld, P. R.

Y. Li, A. J. C. Vieira, S. M. Goldwasser, and P. R. Herczfeld, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 2048 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huignard, J.-P.

J. Bourderionnet, D. Dolfi, J.-P. Huignard, B. Ea-Kim, E. Corbel, D. Purer, A. Poudoulec, and D. Gauden, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Durand, D. Dolfi, V. Laude, J.-P. Huignard, and J. Chazelas, Opt. Lett. 21, 803 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Morvan, D. Dolfi, J.-P. Huignard, S. Blanc, M. Brunel, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, and A. Le Floch, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CTuL5.

Krakowski, M.

R. Czarny, M. Alouini, C. Larat, M. Krakowski, and D. Dolfi, Electron. Lett. 40, 942 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Larat, C.

R. Czarny, M. Alouini, C. Larat, M. Krakowski, and D. Dolfi, Electron. Lett. 40, 942 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laude, V.

Le Floch, A.

M. Alouini, B. Benazet, M. Vallet, M. Brunel, P. Di Bin, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, and P. Thony, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 367 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Brunel, O. Emile, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, B. Ferrand, and E. Molva, Opt. Rev. 4, 550 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Morvan, D. Dolfi, J.-P. Huignard, S. Blanc, M. Brunel, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, and A. Le Floch, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CTuL5.

Lea, S. N.

G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, S. N. Lea, and G. M. Tino, Opt. Commun. 104, 339 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, A. J. C. Vieira, S. M. Goldwasser, and P. R. Herczfeld, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 2048 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, O.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lours, M.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Molva, E.

M. Brunel, O. Emile, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, B. Ferrand, and E. Molva, Opt. Rev. 4, 550 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Morvan, L.

L. Morvan, D. Dolfi, J.-P. Huignard, S. Blanc, M. Brunel, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, and A. Le Floch, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CTuL5.

Narbonneau, F.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Poudoulec, A.

J. Bourderionnet, D. Dolfi, J.-P. Huignard, B. Ea-Kim, E. Corbel, D. Purer, A. Poudoulec, and D. Gauden, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Purer, D.

J. Bourderionnet, D. Dolfi, J.-P. Huignard, B. Ea-Kim, E. Corbel, D. Purer, A. Poudoulec, and D. Gauden, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Santarelli, G.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, S. N. Lea, and G. M. Tino, Opt. Commun. 104, 339 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Thony, P.

M. Alouini, B. Benazet, M. Vallet, M. Brunel, P. Di Bin, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, and P. Thony, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 367 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tino, G. M.

G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, S. N. Lea, and G. M. Tino, Opt. Commun. 104, 339 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vallet, M.

M. Brunel, A. Amon, and M. Vallet, Opt. Lett. 30, 2418 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Alouini, B. Benazet, M. Vallet, M. Brunel, P. Di Bin, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, and P. Thony, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 367 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Morvan, D. Dolfi, J.-P. Huignard, S. Blanc, M. Brunel, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, and A. Le Floch, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CTuL5.

Vieira, A. J. C.

Y. Li, A. J. C. Vieira, S. M. Goldwasser, and P. R. Herczfeld, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 2048 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. Czarny, M. Alouini, C. Larat, M. Krakowski, and D. Dolfi, Electron. Lett. 40, 942 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

J. Bourderionnet, D. Dolfi, J.-P. Huignard, B. Ea-Kim, E. Corbel, D. Purer, A. Poudoulec, and D. Gauden, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Frankel and R. D. Esman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 191 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Alouini, B. Benazet, M. Vallet, M. Brunel, P. Di Bin, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, and P. Thony, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 367 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

Y. Li, A. J. C. Vieira, S. M. Goldwasser, and P. R. Herczfeld, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 2048 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, S. N. Lea, and G. M. Tino, Opt. Commun. 104, 339 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Rev. (1)

M. Brunel, O. Emile, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, B. Ferrand, and E. Molva, Opt. Rev. 4, 550 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

L. Morvan, D. Dolfi, J.-P. Huignard, S. Blanc, M. Brunel, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, and A. Le Floch, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CTuL5.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Origin of the tunability limit in a single-axis laser. The gray curve represents the etalon transmission. Continuous (dashed) black peaks, the cavity resonances for the ordinary (extraordinary) polarization. Continuous (dashed) arrows, oscillating ordinary (extraordinary) modes. (a) Moderate birefringence induces a frequency shift of the extraordinary mode n. (b) Too large birefringence leads to the oscillation of mode n 1 , limiting the frequency difference to the half of the laser cavity FSR. (c) Larger tunability can be obtained by adjusting the etalon.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) U = 0 : the PLZT etalon is isotropic so extraordinary ( e ) and ordinary ( o ) eigenstates oscillate with the same frequency. The black arrows are the oscillating modes, determined by the maximum transmission of the etalon (gray curve) and the resonances of the cavity (black peaks). (b) U 0 : the extraordinary axis index changes, shifting both etalon and cavity resonance peaks (dashed lines). The maximum transmission curve of the etalon is shifted much further than the one of the cavity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Design of the PLZT etalon and its electrodes. (b) Single-axis laser, including the EO PLZT etalon. LD, laser diode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical frequencies of the orthogonally polarized eigenstates of the laser observed on an optical spectrum analyzer. (a) No voltage is applied. The 10 MHz frequency difference is not resolved by the optical spectrum analyzer. In (b) and (c), the applied voltage U on the electrodes is 83 and 400 V , respectively. For U = 400 V , the frequency difference is still 99 GHz , much higher than the 11 GHz cavity FSR. (d) By tilting the etalon, one can further increase the frequency difference up to 127 GHz .

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