Abstract

In stellar interferometry, image quality improves significantly with the inclusion of more telescopes and the use of phase closure. We demonstrate, using first coherent and then partially coherent white light, a compact and efficient pairwise combination of 12 or more beams. The input beams are lined up and spread through a cylindrical lens into a comb of parallel ellipses, which interferes with a perpendicular copy of itself to form a matrix of interferograms between all pairs. The diagonal elements show interference of each beam with itself, for intensity calibration. The measured white-light visibilities were high and stable.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Shao and M. M. Colavita, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 30, 457 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. D. Monnier, Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 789 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Labeyrie, S. G. Lipson, and P. Nisenson, An Introduction to Astronomical Stellar Interferometry (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. B. Le Bouquin, J. Berger, P. R. Labeye, E. Tatulli, F. Malbet, K. Rousselet, and P. Kern, Proc. SPIE 5491, 1362 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. A. Hummel, J. A. Benson, D. J. Huttter, K. J. Johnston, D. Mozurkewich, J. T. Armstrong, R. B. Hindley, G. C. Gilbreath, L. J. Pickard, and N. M. White, Astron. J. 125, 2630 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Perrin, S. Lacour, J. Woillez, and E. Thiebaut, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 373, 747 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. B. Le Bouquin and E. Tatulli, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 372, 639 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. D. Armitage and A. Lohmann, Opt. Acta 12, 185 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. N. Ribak, E. B. Hochberg, N. A. Page, S. P. Synnott, and J. B. Breckinridge, in Proceedings of the European Southern Observatory (ESO, 1988), Vol. 29, p. 1105.
  10. J. B. Breckinridge, E. Ribak, C. Roddier, F. Roddier, and C. Habecker, Real Time Optical Correlation Using White Light Fourier Transforms. Final Report Tech. Work (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1988).
  11. E. N. Ribak, M. Gai, S. G. Lipson, and P. Parahovnik, Proc. SPIE 6268, 57 (2006).
  12. I. Moreno, G. Paez, and M. Strojnik, Opt. Commun. 220, 257 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. J. Galvez and C. D. Holmes, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1981 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (3)

G. Perrin, S. Lacour, J. Woillez, and E. Thiebaut, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 373, 747 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Le Bouquin and E. Tatulli, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 372, 639 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Ribak, M. Gai, S. G. Lipson, and P. Parahovnik, Proc. SPIE 6268, 57 (2006).

2004 (1)

J. B. Le Bouquin, J. Berger, P. R. Labeye, E. Tatulli, F. Malbet, K. Rousselet, and P. Kern, Proc. SPIE 5491, 1362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

C. A. Hummel, J. A. Benson, D. J. Huttter, K. J. Johnston, D. Mozurkewich, J. T. Armstrong, R. B. Hindley, G. C. Gilbreath, L. J. Pickard, and N. M. White, Astron. J. 125, 2630 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Monnier, Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 789 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Moreno, G. Paez, and M. Strojnik, Opt. Commun. 220, 257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1992 (1)

M. Shao and M. M. Colavita, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 30, 457 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

J. D. Armitage and A. Lohmann, Opt. Acta 12, 185 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Armitage, J. D.

J. D. Armitage and A. Lohmann, Opt. Acta 12, 185 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, J. T.

C. A. Hummel, J. A. Benson, D. J. Huttter, K. J. Johnston, D. Mozurkewich, J. T. Armstrong, R. B. Hindley, G. C. Gilbreath, L. J. Pickard, and N. M. White, Astron. J. 125, 2630 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Benson, J. A.

C. A. Hummel, J. A. Benson, D. J. Huttter, K. J. Johnston, D. Mozurkewich, J. T. Armstrong, R. B. Hindley, G. C. Gilbreath, L. J. Pickard, and N. M. White, Astron. J. 125, 2630 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berger, J.

J. B. Le Bouquin, J. Berger, P. R. Labeye, E. Tatulli, F. Malbet, K. Rousselet, and P. Kern, Proc. SPIE 5491, 1362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Breckinridge, J. B.

J. B. Breckinridge, E. Ribak, C. Roddier, F. Roddier, and C. Habecker, Real Time Optical Correlation Using White Light Fourier Transforms. Final Report Tech. Work (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1988).

E. N. Ribak, E. B. Hochberg, N. A. Page, S. P. Synnott, and J. B. Breckinridge, in Proceedings of the European Southern Observatory (ESO, 1988), Vol. 29, p. 1105.

Colavita, M. M.

M. Shao and M. M. Colavita, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 30, 457 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gai, M.

E. N. Ribak, M. Gai, S. G. Lipson, and P. Parahovnik, Proc. SPIE 6268, 57 (2006).

Galvez, E. J.

Gilbreath, G. C.

C. A. Hummel, J. A. Benson, D. J. Huttter, K. J. Johnston, D. Mozurkewich, J. T. Armstrong, R. B. Hindley, G. C. Gilbreath, L. J. Pickard, and N. M. White, Astron. J. 125, 2630 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Habecker, C.

J. B. Breckinridge, E. Ribak, C. Roddier, F. Roddier, and C. Habecker, Real Time Optical Correlation Using White Light Fourier Transforms. Final Report Tech. Work (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1988).

Hindley, R. B.

C. A. Hummel, J. A. Benson, D. J. Huttter, K. J. Johnston, D. Mozurkewich, J. T. Armstrong, R. B. Hindley, G. C. Gilbreath, L. J. Pickard, and N. M. White, Astron. J. 125, 2630 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, E. B.

E. N. Ribak, E. B. Hochberg, N. A. Page, S. P. Synnott, and J. B. Breckinridge, in Proceedings of the European Southern Observatory (ESO, 1988), Vol. 29, p. 1105.

Holmes, C. D.

Hummel, C. A.

C. A. Hummel, J. A. Benson, D. J. Huttter, K. J. Johnston, D. Mozurkewich, J. T. Armstrong, R. B. Hindley, G. C. Gilbreath, L. J. Pickard, and N. M. White, Astron. J. 125, 2630 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huttter, D. J.

C. A. Hummel, J. A. Benson, D. J. Huttter, K. J. Johnston, D. Mozurkewich, J. T. Armstrong, R. B. Hindley, G. C. Gilbreath, L. J. Pickard, and N. M. White, Astron. J. 125, 2630 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, K. J.

C. A. Hummel, J. A. Benson, D. J. Huttter, K. J. Johnston, D. Mozurkewich, J. T. Armstrong, R. B. Hindley, G. C. Gilbreath, L. J. Pickard, and N. M. White, Astron. J. 125, 2630 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kern, P.

J. B. Le Bouquin, J. Berger, P. R. Labeye, E. Tatulli, F. Malbet, K. Rousselet, and P. Kern, Proc. SPIE 5491, 1362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Labeye, P. R.

J. B. Le Bouquin, J. Berger, P. R. Labeye, E. Tatulli, F. Malbet, K. Rousselet, and P. Kern, Proc. SPIE 5491, 1362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Labeyrie, A.

A. Labeyrie, S. G. Lipson, and P. Nisenson, An Introduction to Astronomical Stellar Interferometry (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Lacour, S.

G. Perrin, S. Lacour, J. Woillez, and E. Thiebaut, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 373, 747 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Le Bouquin, J. B.

J. B. Le Bouquin and E. Tatulli, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 372, 639 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Le Bouquin, J. Berger, P. R. Labeye, E. Tatulli, F. Malbet, K. Rousselet, and P. Kern, Proc. SPIE 5491, 1362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, S. G.

E. N. Ribak, M. Gai, S. G. Lipson, and P. Parahovnik, Proc. SPIE 6268, 57 (2006).

A. Labeyrie, S. G. Lipson, and P. Nisenson, An Introduction to Astronomical Stellar Interferometry (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Lohmann, A.

J. D. Armitage and A. Lohmann, Opt. Acta 12, 185 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Malbet, F.

J. B. Le Bouquin, J. Berger, P. R. Labeye, E. Tatulli, F. Malbet, K. Rousselet, and P. Kern, Proc. SPIE 5491, 1362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Monnier, J. D.

J. D. Monnier, Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 789 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, I.

I. Moreno, G. Paez, and M. Strojnik, Opt. Commun. 220, 257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mozurkewich, D.

C. A. Hummel, J. A. Benson, D. J. Huttter, K. J. Johnston, D. Mozurkewich, J. T. Armstrong, R. B. Hindley, G. C. Gilbreath, L. J. Pickard, and N. M. White, Astron. J. 125, 2630 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nisenson, P.

A. Labeyrie, S. G. Lipson, and P. Nisenson, An Introduction to Astronomical Stellar Interferometry (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Paez, G.

I. Moreno, G. Paez, and M. Strojnik, Opt. Commun. 220, 257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Page, N. A.

E. N. Ribak, E. B. Hochberg, N. A. Page, S. P. Synnott, and J. B. Breckinridge, in Proceedings of the European Southern Observatory (ESO, 1988), Vol. 29, p. 1105.

Parahovnik, P.

E. N. Ribak, M. Gai, S. G. Lipson, and P. Parahovnik, Proc. SPIE 6268, 57 (2006).

Perrin, G.

G. Perrin, S. Lacour, J. Woillez, and E. Thiebaut, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 373, 747 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pickard, L. J.

C. A. Hummel, J. A. Benson, D. J. Huttter, K. J. Johnston, D. Mozurkewich, J. T. Armstrong, R. B. Hindley, G. C. Gilbreath, L. J. Pickard, and N. M. White, Astron. J. 125, 2630 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ribak, E.

J. B. Breckinridge, E. Ribak, C. Roddier, F. Roddier, and C. Habecker, Real Time Optical Correlation Using White Light Fourier Transforms. Final Report Tech. Work (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1988).

Ribak, E. N.

E. N. Ribak, M. Gai, S. G. Lipson, and P. Parahovnik, Proc. SPIE 6268, 57 (2006).

E. N. Ribak, E. B. Hochberg, N. A. Page, S. P. Synnott, and J. B. Breckinridge, in Proceedings of the European Southern Observatory (ESO, 1988), Vol. 29, p. 1105.

Roddier, C.

J. B. Breckinridge, E. Ribak, C. Roddier, F. Roddier, and C. Habecker, Real Time Optical Correlation Using White Light Fourier Transforms. Final Report Tech. Work (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1988).

Roddier, F.

J. B. Breckinridge, E. Ribak, C. Roddier, F. Roddier, and C. Habecker, Real Time Optical Correlation Using White Light Fourier Transforms. Final Report Tech. Work (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1988).

Rousselet, K.

J. B. Le Bouquin, J. Berger, P. R. Labeye, E. Tatulli, F. Malbet, K. Rousselet, and P. Kern, Proc. SPIE 5491, 1362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shao, M.

M. Shao and M. M. Colavita, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 30, 457 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Strojnik, M.

I. Moreno, G. Paez, and M. Strojnik, Opt. Commun. 220, 257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Synnott, S. P.

E. N. Ribak, E. B. Hochberg, N. A. Page, S. P. Synnott, and J. B. Breckinridge, in Proceedings of the European Southern Observatory (ESO, 1988), Vol. 29, p. 1105.

Tatulli, E.

J. B. Le Bouquin and E. Tatulli, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 372, 639 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Le Bouquin, J. Berger, P. R. Labeye, E. Tatulli, F. Malbet, K. Rousselet, and P. Kern, Proc. SPIE 5491, 1362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thiebaut, E.

G. Perrin, S. Lacour, J. Woillez, and E. Thiebaut, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 373, 747 (2006).
[CrossRef]

White, N. M.

C. A. Hummel, J. A. Benson, D. J. Huttter, K. J. Johnston, D. Mozurkewich, J. T. Armstrong, R. B. Hindley, G. C. Gilbreath, L. J. Pickard, and N. M. White, Astron. J. 125, 2630 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Woillez, J.

G. Perrin, S. Lacour, J. Woillez, and E. Thiebaut, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 373, 747 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (1)

M. Shao and M. M. Colavita, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 30, 457 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Astron. J. (1)

C. A. Hummel, J. A. Benson, D. J. Huttter, K. J. Johnston, D. Mozurkewich, J. T. Armstrong, R. B. Hindley, G. C. Gilbreath, L. J. Pickard, and N. M. White, Astron. J. 125, 2630 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (2)

G. Perrin, S. Lacour, J. Woillez, and E. Thiebaut, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 373, 747 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Le Bouquin and E. Tatulli, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 372, 639 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

J. D. Armitage and A. Lohmann, Opt. Acta 12, 185 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

I. Moreno, G. Paez, and M. Strojnik, Opt. Commun. 220, 257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. B. Le Bouquin, J. Berger, P. R. Labeye, E. Tatulli, F. Malbet, K. Rousselet, and P. Kern, Proc. SPIE 5491, 1362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Ribak, M. Gai, S. G. Lipson, and P. Parahovnik, Proc. SPIE 6268, 57 (2006).

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

J. D. Monnier, Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 789 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

A. Labeyrie, S. G. Lipson, and P. Nisenson, An Introduction to Astronomical Stellar Interferometry (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Ribak, E. B. Hochberg, N. A. Page, S. P. Synnott, and J. B. Breckinridge, in Proceedings of the European Southern Observatory (ESO, 1988), Vol. 29, p. 1105.

J. B. Breckinridge, E. Ribak, C. Roddier, F. Roddier, and C. Habecker, Real Time Optical Correlation Using White Light Fourier Transforms. Final Report Tech. Work (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1988).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Telescope beams are lined up (left) and stretched in the orthogonal direction to form a comb (center). This comb is then interfered with itself rotated at a normal angle. All fringes from all beams are measured on one detector (right).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Laboratory setups: (a) (Laser) binary, a telescope, and a beam combiner: anamorphic optics and a Sagnac 90° shear interferometer. (b) Prismless rotational shear interferometer. One mirror is above the plane of the rest of the elements. (c) White-light source(s), including anamorphic telephoto and the new shear interferometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Interference pattern of a single laser beam (“single star,” left) and two lasers (“binary,” right). High-contrast fringes are visible along the diagonal (bottom left to top right), where each beam interferes with itself. For the single star, the contrast remains high, but for the binary, it periodically drops off and rises again with distance from the diagonal. The artificial fringe pattern is a product of the curved wavefront alone. However, the phase of these fringes and their contrast change according to the source and intervening atmosphere.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Interference pattern of a single (left) and double (right) white-light source. The diagonal is now vertical.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Raw visibility of the fringes, corresponding to Fig. 4. The first lobe is barely visible (left), and the modulation due to the second source is clear (right).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Histogram of the maximum visibility at every pixel, over many fringe phases, of a single source (Fig. 4).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Anamorphic beam expander design with cylindrical off-axis parabolas, 50 mm apart (top, not to scale). The resulting intensity (center) is flat, as is the phase (bottom), to nanometer accuracy.

Metrics