Abstract

Detailed spectroscopic studies on extreme UV emission from laser plasmas using tin and lithium planar solid targets were completed. At 13.5nm, the best conversion efficiency (CE) for lithium was found to be 2.2% at intensities near 7×1010Wcm2. The highest CE measured for tin was near 5.0% at an intensity close to 1×1011Wcm2.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2005 (3)

C.-S. Koay, S. George, K. Takenoshita, R. Bernath, E. Fujiwara, M. C. Richardson, and V. Bakshi, Proc. SPIE 5751, 279 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. George, C.-S. Koay, K. Takenoshita, R. Bernath, M. Al-Rabban, C. Keyser, H. Scott, V. Bakshi, and M. C. Richardson, Proc. SPIE 5751, 779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Al-Rabban, C. Keyser, S. George, H. Scott, V. Bakshi, and M. C. Richardson, Proc. SPIE 5751, 769 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. Stuik, F. Scholze, J. Tummler, and F. Bijkerk, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 429, 305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

W. T. Silfvast, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

C. W. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Klosner and W. T. Silfvast, Opt. Lett. 23, 1609 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

W. Svendsen and G. O'Sullivan, Phys. Rev. A 50, 3710 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

W. Schwanda, K. Eidmann, and M. C. Richardson, J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 4, 8 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

Algots, J. M.

I. V. Fomenkov, W. N. Partlo, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, C L. Rettig, R. M. Ness, I. R. Oliver, S. T. Melnychuk, O. V. Khodykin, J. R. Hoffman, V. B. Fleurov, J. M. Algots, J. W. Viatella, B. A. M. Hansson, O. Hemberg, A. N. Bykanov, E. A. Lopez, P. C. Oh, T. D. Steiger, and D. W. Myers, "Progress in development of a high power source for EUV lithography," presented at the Symposium on EUVL (Miyasaki, Japan), November 1-5, 2004.

Al-Rabban, M.

S. George, C.-S. Koay, K. Takenoshita, R. Bernath, M. Al-Rabban, C. Keyser, H. Scott, V. Bakshi, and M. C. Richardson, Proc. SPIE 5751, 779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Al-Rabban, C. Keyser, S. George, H. Scott, V. Bakshi, and M. C. Richardson, Proc. SPIE 5751, 769 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. George, W. Silfvast, K. Takenoshita, R. Bernath, C.-S. Koay, G. Shimkaveg, M. Al-Rabban, H. Scott, and M. Richardson, Proc. SPIE6151 (2006).

Attwood, D.

C. W. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bakshi, V.

C.-S. Koay, S. George, K. Takenoshita, R. Bernath, E. Fujiwara, M. C. Richardson, and V. Bakshi, Proc. SPIE 5751, 279 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Al-Rabban, C. Keyser, S. George, H. Scott, V. Bakshi, and M. C. Richardson, Proc. SPIE 5751, 769 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. George, C.-S. Koay, K. Takenoshita, R. Bernath, M. Al-Rabban, C. Keyser, H. Scott, V. Bakshi, and M. C. Richardson, Proc. SPIE 5751, 779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Banine, V.

K. Ota, Y. Watanabe, H. Franken, and V. Banine, "EUV source requirements," presented at the EUV Source Workshop, Third International EUVL Symposium, Miyazaki, Japan, November 5, 2004.

Bender, H. A.

Bernath, R.

C.-S. Koay, S. George, K. Takenoshita, R. Bernath, E. Fujiwara, M. C. Richardson, and V. Bakshi, Proc. SPIE 5751, 279 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. George, C.-S. Koay, K. Takenoshita, R. Bernath, M. Al-Rabban, C. Keyser, H. Scott, V. Bakshi, and M. C. Richardson, Proc. SPIE 5751, 779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. George, W. Silfvast, K. Takenoshita, R. Bernath, C.-S. Koay, G. Shimkaveg, M. Al-Rabban, H. Scott, and M. Richardson, Proc. SPIE6151 (2006).

Bijkerk, F.

R. Stuik, F. Scholze, J. Tummler, and F. Bijkerk, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 429, 305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bolloger, B.

D. Myers, B. Klene, I. Fomenkov, B. Hansson, and B. Bolloger, "The optimal path to HVM," presented at the Symposium on EUVL (Miyasaki, Japan), November 1-5, 2004.

Böwering, N. R.

I. V. Fomenkov, W. N. Partlo, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, C L. Rettig, R. M. Ness, I. R. Oliver, S. T. Melnychuk, O. V. Khodykin, J. R. Hoffman, V. B. Fleurov, J. M. Algots, J. W. Viatella, B. A. M. Hansson, O. Hemberg, A. N. Bykanov, E. A. Lopez, P. C. Oh, T. D. Steiger, and D. W. Myers, "Progress in development of a high power source for EUV lithography," presented at the Symposium on EUVL (Miyasaki, Japan), November 1-5, 2004.

Bykanov, A. N.

I. V. Fomenkov, W. N. Partlo, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, C L. Rettig, R. M. Ness, I. R. Oliver, S. T. Melnychuk, O. V. Khodykin, J. R. Hoffman, V. B. Fleurov, J. M. Algots, J. W. Viatella, B. A. M. Hansson, O. Hemberg, A. N. Bykanov, E. A. Lopez, P. C. Oh, T. D. Steiger, and D. W. Myers, "Progress in development of a high power source for EUV lithography," presented at the Symposium on EUVL (Miyasaki, Japan), November 1-5, 2004.

Eidmann, K.

W. Schwanda, K. Eidmann, and M. C. Richardson, J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 4, 8 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ershov, A. I.

I. V. Fomenkov, W. N. Partlo, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, C L. Rettig, R. M. Ness, I. R. Oliver, S. T. Melnychuk, O. V. Khodykin, J. R. Hoffman, V. B. Fleurov, J. M. Algots, J. W. Viatella, B. A. M. Hansson, O. Hemberg, A. N. Bykanov, E. A. Lopez, P. C. Oh, T. D. Steiger, and D. W. Myers, "Progress in development of a high power source for EUV lithography," presented at the Symposium on EUVL (Miyasaki, Japan), November 1-5, 2004.

Fleurov, V. B.

I. V. Fomenkov, W. N. Partlo, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, C L. Rettig, R. M. Ness, I. R. Oliver, S. T. Melnychuk, O. V. Khodykin, J. R. Hoffman, V. B. Fleurov, J. M. Algots, J. W. Viatella, B. A. M. Hansson, O. Hemberg, A. N. Bykanov, E. A. Lopez, P. C. Oh, T. D. Steiger, and D. W. Myers, "Progress in development of a high power source for EUV lithography," presented at the Symposium on EUVL (Miyasaki, Japan), November 1-5, 2004.

Fomenkov, I.

D. Myers, B. Klene, I. Fomenkov, B. Hansson, and B. Bolloger, "The optimal path to HVM," presented at the Symposium on EUVL (Miyasaki, Japan), November 1-5, 2004.

Fomenkov, I. V.

I. V. Fomenkov, W. N. Partlo, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, C L. Rettig, R. M. Ness, I. R. Oliver, S. T. Melnychuk, O. V. Khodykin, J. R. Hoffman, V. B. Fleurov, J. M. Algots, J. W. Viatella, B. A. M. Hansson, O. Hemberg, A. N. Bykanov, E. A. Lopez, P. C. Oh, T. D. Steiger, and D. W. Myers, "Progress in development of a high power source for EUV lithography," presented at the Symposium on EUVL (Miyasaki, Japan), November 1-5, 2004.

Franken, H.

K. Ota, Y. Watanabe, H. Franken, and V. Banine, "EUV source requirements," presented at the EUV Source Workshop, Third International EUVL Symposium, Miyazaki, Japan, November 5, 2004.

Fujiwara, E.

C.-S. Koay, S. George, K. Takenoshita, R. Bernath, E. Fujiwara, M. C. Richardson, and V. Bakshi, Proc. SPIE 5751, 279 (2005).
[CrossRef]

George, S.

C.-S. Koay, S. George, K. Takenoshita, R. Bernath, E. Fujiwara, M. C. Richardson, and V. Bakshi, Proc. SPIE 5751, 279 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. George, C.-S. Koay, K. Takenoshita, R. Bernath, M. Al-Rabban, C. Keyser, H. Scott, V. Bakshi, and M. C. Richardson, Proc. SPIE 5751, 779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Al-Rabban, C. Keyser, S. George, H. Scott, V. Bakshi, and M. C. Richardson, Proc. SPIE 5751, 769 (2005).
[CrossRef]

George, S. A.

S. A. George, W. Silfvast, K. Takenoshita, R. Bernath, C.-S. Koay, G. Shimkaveg, M. Al-Rabban, H. Scott, and M. Richardson, Proc. SPIE6151 (2006).

Griem, H. R.

H. R. Griem, Spectral Line Broadening by Plasmas (New York, 1974).

H. R. Griem, Plasma Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, 1964).

Gwyn, C. W.

C. W. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hansson, B.

D. Myers, B. Klene, I. Fomenkov, B. Hansson, and B. Bolloger, "The optimal path to HVM," presented at the Symposium on EUVL (Miyasaki, Japan), November 1-5, 2004.

Hansson, B. A. M.

I. V. Fomenkov, W. N. Partlo, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, C L. Rettig, R. M. Ness, I. R. Oliver, S. T. Melnychuk, O. V. Khodykin, J. R. Hoffman, V. B. Fleurov, J. M. Algots, J. W. Viatella, B. A. M. Hansson, O. Hemberg, A. N. Bykanov, E. A. Lopez, P. C. Oh, T. D. Steiger, and D. W. Myers, "Progress in development of a high power source for EUV lithography," presented at the Symposium on EUVL (Miyasaki, Japan), November 1-5, 2004.

Harada, T.

Hemberg, O.

I. V. Fomenkov, W. N. Partlo, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, C L. Rettig, R. M. Ness, I. R. Oliver, S. T. Melnychuk, O. V. Khodykin, J. R. Hoffman, V. B. Fleurov, J. M. Algots, J. W. Viatella, B. A. M. Hansson, O. Hemberg, A. N. Bykanov, E. A. Lopez, P. C. Oh, T. D. Steiger, and D. W. Myers, "Progress in development of a high power source for EUV lithography," presented at the Symposium on EUVL (Miyasaki, Japan), November 1-5, 2004.

Hoffman, J. R.

I. V. Fomenkov, W. N. Partlo, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, C L. Rettig, R. M. Ness, I. R. Oliver, S. T. Melnychuk, O. V. Khodykin, J. R. Hoffman, V. B. Fleurov, J. M. Algots, J. W. Viatella, B. A. M. Hansson, O. Hemberg, A. N. Bykanov, E. A. Lopez, P. C. Oh, T. D. Steiger, and D. W. Myers, "Progress in development of a high power source for EUV lithography," presented at the Symposium on EUVL (Miyasaki, Japan), November 1-5, 2004.

Keyser, C.

M. Al-Rabban, C. Keyser, S. George, H. Scott, V. Bakshi, and M. C. Richardson, Proc. SPIE 5751, 769 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. George, C.-S. Koay, K. Takenoshita, R. Bernath, M. Al-Rabban, C. Keyser, H. Scott, V. Bakshi, and M. C. Richardson, Proc. SPIE 5751, 779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Khodykin, O. V.

I. V. Fomenkov, W. N. Partlo, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, C L. Rettig, R. M. Ness, I. R. Oliver, S. T. Melnychuk, O. V. Khodykin, J. R. Hoffman, V. B. Fleurov, J. M. Algots, J. W. Viatella, B. A. M. Hansson, O. Hemberg, A. N. Bykanov, E. A. Lopez, P. C. Oh, T. D. Steiger, and D. W. Myers, "Progress in development of a high power source for EUV lithography," presented at the Symposium on EUVL (Miyasaki, Japan), November 1-5, 2004.

Kita, T.

Klene, B.

D. Myers, B. Klene, I. Fomenkov, B. Hansson, and B. Bolloger, "The optimal path to HVM," presented at the Symposium on EUVL (Miyasaki, Japan), November 1-5, 2004.

Klosner, M. A.

Koay, C.-S.

C.-S. Koay, S. George, K. Takenoshita, R. Bernath, E. Fujiwara, M. C. Richardson, and V. Bakshi, Proc. SPIE 5751, 279 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. George, C.-S. Koay, K. Takenoshita, R. Bernath, M. Al-Rabban, C. Keyser, H. Scott, V. Bakshi, and M. C. Richardson, Proc. SPIE 5751, 779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. George, W. Silfvast, K. Takenoshita, R. Bernath, C.-S. Koay, G. Shimkaveg, M. Al-Rabban, H. Scott, and M. Richardson, Proc. SPIE6151 (2006).

Kuroda, H.

Lopez, E. A.

I. V. Fomenkov, W. N. Partlo, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, C L. Rettig, R. M. Ness, I. R. Oliver, S. T. Melnychuk, O. V. Khodykin, J. R. Hoffman, V. B. Fleurov, J. M. Algots, J. W. Viatella, B. A. M. Hansson, O. Hemberg, A. N. Bykanov, E. A. Lopez, P. C. Oh, T. D. Steiger, and D. W. Myers, "Progress in development of a high power source for EUV lithography," presented at the Symposium on EUVL (Miyasaki, Japan), November 1-5, 2004.

Melnychuk, S. T.

I. V. Fomenkov, W. N. Partlo, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, C L. Rettig, R. M. Ness, I. R. Oliver, S. T. Melnychuk, O. V. Khodykin, J. R. Hoffman, V. B. Fleurov, J. M. Algots, J. W. Viatella, B. A. M. Hansson, O. Hemberg, A. N. Bykanov, E. A. Lopez, P. C. Oh, T. D. Steiger, and D. W. Myers, "Progress in development of a high power source for EUV lithography," presented at the Symposium on EUVL (Miyasaki, Japan), November 1-5, 2004.

Myers, D.

D. Myers, B. Klene, I. Fomenkov, B. Hansson, and B. Bolloger, "The optimal path to HVM," presented at the Symposium on EUVL (Miyasaki, Japan), November 1-5, 2004.

Myers, D. W.

I. V. Fomenkov, W. N. Partlo, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, C L. Rettig, R. M. Ness, I. R. Oliver, S. T. Melnychuk, O. V. Khodykin, J. R. Hoffman, V. B. Fleurov, J. M. Algots, J. W. Viatella, B. A. M. Hansson, O. Hemberg, A. N. Bykanov, E. A. Lopez, P. C. Oh, T. D. Steiger, and D. W. Myers, "Progress in development of a high power source for EUV lithography," presented at the Symposium on EUVL (Miyasaki, Japan), November 1-5, 2004.

Ness, R. M.

I. V. Fomenkov, W. N. Partlo, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, C L. Rettig, R. M. Ness, I. R. Oliver, S. T. Melnychuk, O. V. Khodykin, J. R. Hoffman, V. B. Fleurov, J. M. Algots, J. W. Viatella, B. A. M. Hansson, O. Hemberg, A. N. Bykanov, E. A. Lopez, P. C. Oh, T. D. Steiger, and D. W. Myers, "Progress in development of a high power source for EUV lithography," presented at the Symposium on EUVL (Miyasaki, Japan), November 1-5, 2004.

O'Connell, D. J.

D. J. O'Connell, "Characterization of a lithium laser produced plasma at 135 Å for extreme ultraviolet projection lithography," M.S. thesis (University of Central Florida, 1994).

Oh, P. C.

I. V. Fomenkov, W. N. Partlo, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, C L. Rettig, R. M. Ness, I. R. Oliver, S. T. Melnychuk, O. V. Khodykin, J. R. Hoffman, V. B. Fleurov, J. M. Algots, J. W. Viatella, B. A. M. Hansson, O. Hemberg, A. N. Bykanov, E. A. Lopez, P. C. Oh, T. D. Steiger, and D. W. Myers, "Progress in development of a high power source for EUV lithography," presented at the Symposium on EUVL (Miyasaki, Japan), November 1-5, 2004.

Oliver, I. R.

I. V. Fomenkov, W. N. Partlo, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, C L. Rettig, R. M. Ness, I. R. Oliver, S. T. Melnychuk, O. V. Khodykin, J. R. Hoffman, V. B. Fleurov, J. M. Algots, J. W. Viatella, B. A. M. Hansson, O. Hemberg, A. N. Bykanov, E. A. Lopez, P. C. Oh, T. D. Steiger, and D. W. Myers, "Progress in development of a high power source for EUV lithography," presented at the Symposium on EUVL (Miyasaki, Japan), November 1-5, 2004.

O'Sullivan, G.

W. Svendsen and G. O'Sullivan, Phys. Rev. A 50, 3710 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ota, K.

K. Ota, Y. Watanabe, H. Franken, and V. Banine, "EUV source requirements," presented at the EUV Source Workshop, Third International EUVL Symposium, Miyazaki, Japan, November 5, 2004.

Partlo, W. N.

I. V. Fomenkov, W. N. Partlo, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, C L. Rettig, R. M. Ness, I. R. Oliver, S. T. Melnychuk, O. V. Khodykin, J. R. Hoffman, V. B. Fleurov, J. M. Algots, J. W. Viatella, B. A. M. Hansson, O. Hemberg, A. N. Bykanov, E. A. Lopez, P. C. Oh, T. D. Steiger, and D. W. Myers, "Progress in development of a high power source for EUV lithography," presented at the Symposium on EUVL (Miyasaki, Japan), November 1-5, 2004.

Rettig, C L.

I. V. Fomenkov, W. N. Partlo, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, C L. Rettig, R. M. Ness, I. R. Oliver, S. T. Melnychuk, O. V. Khodykin, J. R. Hoffman, V. B. Fleurov, J. M. Algots, J. W. Viatella, B. A. M. Hansson, O. Hemberg, A. N. Bykanov, E. A. Lopez, P. C. Oh, T. D. Steiger, and D. W. Myers, "Progress in development of a high power source for EUV lithography," presented at the Symposium on EUVL (Miyasaki, Japan), November 1-5, 2004.

Richardson, M.

S. A. George, W. Silfvast, K. Takenoshita, R. Bernath, C.-S. Koay, G. Shimkaveg, M. Al-Rabban, H. Scott, and M. Richardson, Proc. SPIE6151 (2006).

Richardson, M. C.

C.-S. Koay, S. George, K. Takenoshita, R. Bernath, E. Fujiwara, M. C. Richardson, and V. Bakshi, Proc. SPIE 5751, 279 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. George, C.-S. Koay, K. Takenoshita, R. Bernath, M. Al-Rabban, C. Keyser, H. Scott, V. Bakshi, and M. C. Richardson, Proc. SPIE 5751, 779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Al-Rabban, C. Keyser, S. George, H. Scott, V. Bakshi, and M. C. Richardson, Proc. SPIE 5751, 769 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Schwanda, K. Eidmann, and M. C. Richardson, J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 4, 8 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Scholze, F.

R. Stuik, F. Scholze, J. Tummler, and F. Bijkerk, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 429, 305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schwanda, W.

W. Schwanda, K. Eidmann, and M. C. Richardson, J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 4, 8 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Scott, H.

M. Al-Rabban, C. Keyser, S. George, H. Scott, V. Bakshi, and M. C. Richardson, Proc. SPIE 5751, 769 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. George, C.-S. Koay, K. Takenoshita, R. Bernath, M. Al-Rabban, C. Keyser, H. Scott, V. Bakshi, and M. C. Richardson, Proc. SPIE 5751, 779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. George, W. Silfvast, K. Takenoshita, R. Bernath, C.-S. Koay, G. Shimkaveg, M. Al-Rabban, H. Scott, and M. Richardson, Proc. SPIE6151 (2006).

Shimkaveg, G.

S. A. George, W. Silfvast, K. Takenoshita, R. Bernath, C.-S. Koay, G. Shimkaveg, M. Al-Rabban, H. Scott, and M. Richardson, Proc. SPIE6151 (2006).

Silfvast, W.

S. A. George, W. Silfvast, K. Takenoshita, R. Bernath, C.-S. Koay, G. Shimkaveg, M. Al-Rabban, H. Scott, and M. Richardson, Proc. SPIE6151 (2006).

Silfvast, W. T.

Steiger, T. D.

I. V. Fomenkov, W. N. Partlo, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, C L. Rettig, R. M. Ness, I. R. Oliver, S. T. Melnychuk, O. V. Khodykin, J. R. Hoffman, V. B. Fleurov, J. M. Algots, J. W. Viatella, B. A. M. Hansson, O. Hemberg, A. N. Bykanov, E. A. Lopez, P. C. Oh, T. D. Steiger, and D. W. Myers, "Progress in development of a high power source for EUV lithography," presented at the Symposium on EUVL (Miyasaki, Japan), November 1-5, 2004.

Stuik, R.

R. Stuik, F. Scholze, J. Tummler, and F. Bijkerk, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 429, 305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stulen, R.

C. W. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Svendsen, W.

W. Svendsen and G. O'Sullivan, Phys. Rev. A 50, 3710 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sweeney, D.

C. W. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Takano, N.

Takenoshita, K.

C.-S. Koay, S. George, K. Takenoshita, R. Bernath, E. Fujiwara, M. C. Richardson, and V. Bakshi, Proc. SPIE 5751, 279 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. George, C.-S. Koay, K. Takenoshita, R. Bernath, M. Al-Rabban, C. Keyser, H. Scott, V. Bakshi, and M. C. Richardson, Proc. SPIE 5751, 779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. George, W. Silfvast, K. Takenoshita, R. Bernath, C.-S. Koay, G. Shimkaveg, M. Al-Rabban, H. Scott, and M. Richardson, Proc. SPIE6151 (2006).

Tummler, J.

R. Stuik, F. Scholze, J. Tummler, and F. Bijkerk, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 429, 305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Viatella, J. W.

I. V. Fomenkov, W. N. Partlo, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, C L. Rettig, R. M. Ness, I. R. Oliver, S. T. Melnychuk, O. V. Khodykin, J. R. Hoffman, V. B. Fleurov, J. M. Algots, J. W. Viatella, B. A. M. Hansson, O. Hemberg, A. N. Bykanov, E. A. Lopez, P. C. Oh, T. D. Steiger, and D. W. Myers, "Progress in development of a high power source for EUV lithography," presented at the Symposium on EUVL (Miyasaki, Japan), November 1-5, 2004.

Watanabe, Y.

K. Ota, Y. Watanabe, H. Franken, and V. Banine, "EUV source requirements," presented at the EUV Source Workshop, Third International EUVL Symposium, Miyazaki, Japan, November 5, 2004.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. T. Silfvast, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

C. W. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. (1)

W. Schwanda, K. Eidmann, and M. C. Richardson, J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 4, 8 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

R. Stuik, F. Scholze, J. Tummler, and F. Bijkerk, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 429, 305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

W. Svendsen and G. O'Sullivan, Phys. Rev. A 50, 3710 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (3)

S. George, C.-S. Koay, K. Takenoshita, R. Bernath, M. Al-Rabban, C. Keyser, H. Scott, V. Bakshi, and M. C. Richardson, Proc. SPIE 5751, 779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Al-Rabban, C. Keyser, S. George, H. Scott, V. Bakshi, and M. C. Richardson, Proc. SPIE 5751, 769 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Koay, S. George, K. Takenoshita, R. Bernath, E. Fujiwara, M. C. Richardson, and V. Bakshi, Proc. SPIE 5751, 279 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

D. J. O'Connell, "Characterization of a lithium laser produced plasma at 135 Å for extreme ultraviolet projection lithography," M.S. thesis (University of Central Florida, 1994).

I. V. Fomenkov, W. N. Partlo, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, C L. Rettig, R. M. Ness, I. R. Oliver, S. T. Melnychuk, O. V. Khodykin, J. R. Hoffman, V. B. Fleurov, J. M. Algots, J. W. Viatella, B. A. M. Hansson, O. Hemberg, A. N. Bykanov, E. A. Lopez, P. C. Oh, T. D. Steiger, and D. W. Myers, "Progress in development of a high power source for EUV lithography," presented at the Symposium on EUVL (Miyasaki, Japan), November 1-5, 2004.

D. Myers, B. Klene, I. Fomenkov, B. Hansson, and B. Bolloger, "The optimal path to HVM," presented at the Symposium on EUVL (Miyasaki, Japan), November 1-5, 2004.

"FC2: Calibration of a EUV Source at PLEX LLC" (International SEMATECH Technology Transfer no. 04024490A-TR).

K. Ota, Y. Watanabe, H. Franken, and V. Banine, "EUV source requirements," presented at the EUV Source Workshop, Third International EUVL Symposium, Miyazaki, Japan, November 5, 2004.

S. A. George, W. Silfvast, K. Takenoshita, R. Bernath, C.-S. Koay, G. Shimkaveg, M. Al-Rabban, H. Scott, and M. Richardson, Proc. SPIE6151 (2006).

H. R. Griem, Spectral Line Broadening by Plasmas (New York, 1974).

H. R. Griem, Plasma Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, 1964).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Lithium spectral distribution for laser intensities ranging from 10 9 10 11 W cm 2 ; laser energy used is 65.5 mJ . (b) Tin spectra recorded for varying intensities with optimum emission at 1 2 × 10 11 W cm 2 for the same experimental conditions as lithium.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Conversion efficiency as function of intensity for lithium and tin into 2% bandwidth and 2 π sr. Laser energy used for these measurements is 78.6 mJ . The highest CE obtained for tin is 4.9% at an irradiance intensity of 9 × 10 11 W cm 2 , and for lithium the highest is 2.2% near 6.6 × 10 10 W cm 2 .

Equations (1)

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E BW = 2 π A scope Ω R scope η diode BW I s ( λ ) d λ all I s ( λ ) T g ( λ ) R mir ( λ ) T f ( λ ) d λ ,

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