Abstract

A tapered hollow waveguide that can focus a laser beam into a small beam spot is proposed for medical and dental applications. We fabricated hollow tapered optics by using a traveling torch, and the shape was formed as a precise linear taper. For a hollow taper tip with input and output diameters of 700 and 200μm, respectively, the insertion loss is as small as 0.7dB in a 10mm long taper. The hollow taper optic producing a 200μm spot withstands input energy of 100mJ. Because a focusing lens is unnecessary at the output end, the laser beam can be introduced into a deep and narrow spot with these tapered optics.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Hibst and U. Keller, Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 338 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Watanabe, I. Ishikawa, M. Suzuki, and K. Hasegawa, J. Clin. Laser Med. Surg. 14, 67 (1996).
    [PubMed]
  3. D. J. P. Evans, S. Matthews, N. B. Pitts, C. Longboltom, and Z. J. Nugent, Br. Dent. J. 188, 677 (2000).
    [PubMed]
  4. J. A. Harrington, Infrared Fibers and Their Applications (SPIE, 2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. K. Ilev and R. W. Waynant, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2921 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Matsuura, H. Hiraga, Y. Wang, Y. Kato, M. Miyagi, S. Abe, and S. Onodera, Appl. Opt. 36, 7818 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Matsuura, Y. Shi, Y. Abe, M. Yaegashi, G. Takada, S. Mohri, and M. Miyagi, Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 279 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y. Matsuura, Y. Shi, Y. Abe, M. Yaegashi, G. Takada, S. Mohri, and M. Miyagi, Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 279 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. J. P. Evans, S. Matthews, N. B. Pitts, C. Longboltom, and Z. J. Nugent, Br. Dent. J. 188, 677 (2000).
[PubMed]

1999 (2)

I. K. Ilev and R. W. Waynant, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2921 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Hibst and U. Keller, Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 338 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

H. Watanabe, I. Ishikawa, M. Suzuki, and K. Hasegawa, J. Clin. Laser Med. Surg. 14, 67 (1996).
[PubMed]

1992 (1)

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Abe, S.

Abe, Y.

Y. Matsuura, Y. Shi, Y. Abe, M. Yaegashi, G. Takada, S. Mohri, and M. Miyagi, Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 279 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Evans, D. J. P.

D. J. P. Evans, S. Matthews, N. B. Pitts, C. Longboltom, and Z. J. Nugent, Br. Dent. J. 188, 677 (2000).
[PubMed]

Harrington, J. A.

J. A. Harrington, Infrared Fibers and Their Applications (SPIE, 2004).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, K.

H. Watanabe, I. Ishikawa, M. Suzuki, and K. Hasegawa, J. Clin. Laser Med. Surg. 14, 67 (1996).
[PubMed]

Hibst, R.

R. Hibst and U. Keller, Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 338 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hiraga, H.

Ilev, I. K.

I. K. Ilev and R. W. Waynant, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2921 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, I.

H. Watanabe, I. Ishikawa, M. Suzuki, and K. Hasegawa, J. Clin. Laser Med. Surg. 14, 67 (1996).
[PubMed]

Kato, Y.

Keller, U.

R. Hibst and U. Keller, Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 338 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. W.

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Longboltom, C.

D. J. P. Evans, S. Matthews, N. B. Pitts, C. Longboltom, and Z. J. Nugent, Br. Dent. J. 188, 677 (2000).
[PubMed]

Matsuura, Y.

Y. Matsuura, Y. Shi, Y. Abe, M. Yaegashi, G. Takada, S. Mohri, and M. Miyagi, Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 279 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Matsuura, H. Hiraga, Y. Wang, Y. Kato, M. Miyagi, S. Abe, and S. Onodera, Appl. Opt. 36, 7818 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, S.

D. J. P. Evans, S. Matthews, N. B. Pitts, C. Longboltom, and Z. J. Nugent, Br. Dent. J. 188, 677 (2000).
[PubMed]

Miyagi, M.

Y. Matsuura, Y. Shi, Y. Abe, M. Yaegashi, G. Takada, S. Mohri, and M. Miyagi, Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 279 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Matsuura, H. Hiraga, Y. Wang, Y. Kato, M. Miyagi, S. Abe, and S. Onodera, Appl. Opt. 36, 7818 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mohri, S.

Y. Matsuura, Y. Shi, Y. Abe, M. Yaegashi, G. Takada, S. Mohri, and M. Miyagi, Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 279 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nugent, Z. J.

D. J. P. Evans, S. Matthews, N. B. Pitts, C. Longboltom, and Z. J. Nugent, Br. Dent. J. 188, 677 (2000).
[PubMed]

Onodera, S.

Pitts, N. B.

D. J. P. Evans, S. Matthews, N. B. Pitts, C. Longboltom, and Z. J. Nugent, Br. Dent. J. 188, 677 (2000).
[PubMed]

Shi, Y.

Y. Matsuura, Y. Shi, Y. Abe, M. Yaegashi, G. Takada, S. Mohri, and M. Miyagi, Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 279 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, M.

H. Watanabe, I. Ishikawa, M. Suzuki, and K. Hasegawa, J. Clin. Laser Med. Surg. 14, 67 (1996).
[PubMed]

Takada, G.

Y. Matsuura, Y. Shi, Y. Abe, M. Yaegashi, G. Takada, S. Mohri, and M. Miyagi, Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 279 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Watanabe, H.

H. Watanabe, I. Ishikawa, M. Suzuki, and K. Hasegawa, J. Clin. Laser Med. Surg. 14, 67 (1996).
[PubMed]

Waynant, R. W.

I. K. Ilev and R. W. Waynant, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2921 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yaegashi, M.

Y. Matsuura, Y. Shi, Y. Abe, M. Yaegashi, G. Takada, S. Mohri, and M. Miyagi, Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 279 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

I. K. Ilev and R. W. Waynant, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2921 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Br. Dent. J. (1)

D. J. P. Evans, S. Matthews, N. B. Pitts, C. Longboltom, and Z. J. Nugent, Br. Dent. J. 188, 677 (2000).
[PubMed]

J. Clin. Laser Med. Surg. (1)

H. Watanabe, I. Ishikawa, M. Suzuki, and K. Hasegawa, J. Clin. Laser Med. Surg. 14, 67 (1996).
[PubMed]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

R. Hibst and U. Keller, Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 338 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

Y. Matsuura, Y. Shi, Y. Abe, M. Yaegashi, G. Takada, S. Mohri, and M. Miyagi, Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 279 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. A. Harrington, Infrared Fibers and Their Applications (SPIE, 2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Tapered focusing tip with internal silver coating. Inner diameters are 700 μ m at the input and 200 μ m at the output end.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured outer diameters of fabricated hollow tapered optics with different inner diameters d 0 at the output end. Data are shown as a function of distance from the taper transition point. The inner diameter of the input end of taper is 700 μ m .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured insertion losses of fabricated tapered optics with different output diameters d 0 . The inner diameter of the taper input is 700 μ m . Theoretical losses are calculated with the ray-tracing method.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured insertion losses of fabricated tapered optics versus input energy of Er : YAG laser pulses. The tapers have an inner diameter of 700 μ m at the input and have different output diameters d 0 .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured spot diameters of output beam of tapered optics. The tapers have an inner diameter of 700 μ m at the input and have different output diameters d 0 . The divergence angles of the output beam θ are also shown as FWHM angles.

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