Abstract

Optical burst amplification in a gain-stabilized amplifier may generate complex gain dynamics with nonlinear behavior. This phenomenon is thoroughly investigated by using a theoretical model and dedicated experiments. Design guidelines for optimized devices avoiding optical burst transmission impairments are proposed.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Yu-Li Hsueh, J. Kim, Ching-Fong Su, R. Rabbat, T. Hamada, C. Tian, and L. G. Kazovsky, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 44 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [PubMed]
  3. M. Zirngibl, Electron. Lett. 27, 560 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Rogowski, S. Taccheo, J. Shmulovich, and K. Ennser, in 31st European Conference on Optical Communications 4, (Institution of Electrical Engineers, 2005), pp. 919-920.
  5. G. Della Valle, A. Festa, S. Taccheo, and K. Ennser, in 32nd European Conference on Optical Communications (Société de l'Electricité, de l'Electronique et des Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication, 2006), paper We3.P.29.
  6. L. Luo, T. J. Tee, and P. L. Chu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 972 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Ennser, T. Rogowski, J. Shmulovich, and S. Taccheo, Opt. Express 14, 10307 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. Ennser, G. Della Valle, M. Ibsen, J. Schmulovich, and S. Taccheo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1468 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. X. Yu, J. Li, Y. Chen, and C. Qiao, J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2722 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

K. Ennser, G. Della Valle, M. Ibsen, J. Schmulovich, and S. Taccheo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

1998 (1)

1991 (1)

M. Zirngibl, Electron. Lett. 27, 560 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Chu, P. L.

Della Valle, G.

K. Ennser, G. Della Valle, M. Ibsen, J. Schmulovich, and S. Taccheo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Della Valle, A. Festa, S. Taccheo, and K. Ennser, in 32nd European Conference on Optical Communications (Société de l'Electricité, de l'Electronique et des Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication, 2006), paper We3.P.29.

Ennser, K.

K. Ennser, T. Rogowski, J. Shmulovich, and S. Taccheo, Opt. Express 14, 10307 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ennser, G. Della Valle, M. Ibsen, J. Schmulovich, and S. Taccheo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Della Valle, A. Festa, S. Taccheo, and K. Ennser, in 32nd European Conference on Optical Communications (Société de l'Electricité, de l'Electronique et des Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication, 2006), paper We3.P.29.

T. Rogowski, S. Taccheo, J. Shmulovich, and K. Ennser, in 31st European Conference on Optical Communications 4, (Institution of Electrical Engineers, 2005), pp. 919-920.

Festa, A.

G. Della Valle, A. Festa, S. Taccheo, and K. Ennser, in 32nd European Conference on Optical Communications (Société de l'Electricité, de l'Electronique et des Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication, 2006), paper We3.P.29.

Hamada, T.

Hsueh, Yu-Li

Ibsen, M.

K. Ennser, G. Della Valle, M. Ibsen, J. Schmulovich, and S. Taccheo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kazovsky, L. G.

Kim, J.

Li, J.

Lieu, A.

A. Lieu, C. Tian, and T. Naito, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper OtuD5.
[PubMed]

Luo, L.

Naito, T.

A. Lieu, C. Tian, and T. Naito, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper OtuD5.
[PubMed]

Qiao, C.

Rabbat, R.

Rogowski, T.

K. Ennser, T. Rogowski, J. Shmulovich, and S. Taccheo, Opt. Express 14, 10307 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Rogowski, S. Taccheo, J. Shmulovich, and K. Ennser, in 31st European Conference on Optical Communications 4, (Institution of Electrical Engineers, 2005), pp. 919-920.

Schmulovich, J.

K. Ennser, G. Della Valle, M. Ibsen, J. Schmulovich, and S. Taccheo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shmulovich, J.

K. Ennser, T. Rogowski, J. Shmulovich, and S. Taccheo, Opt. Express 14, 10307 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Rogowski, S. Taccheo, J. Shmulovich, and K. Ennser, in 31st European Conference on Optical Communications 4, (Institution of Electrical Engineers, 2005), pp. 919-920.

Su, Ching-Fong

Taccheo, S.

K. Ennser, T. Rogowski, J. Shmulovich, and S. Taccheo, Opt. Express 14, 10307 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ennser, G. Della Valle, M. Ibsen, J. Schmulovich, and S. Taccheo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Della Valle, A. Festa, S. Taccheo, and K. Ennser, in 32nd European Conference on Optical Communications (Société de l'Electricité, de l'Electronique et des Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication, 2006), paper We3.P.29.

T. Rogowski, S. Taccheo, J. Shmulovich, and K. Ennser, in 31st European Conference on Optical Communications 4, (Institution of Electrical Engineers, 2005), pp. 919-920.

Tee, T. J.

Tian, C.

Yu-Li Hsueh, J. Kim, Ching-Fong Su, R. Rabbat, T. Hamada, C. Tian, and L. G. Kazovsky, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 44 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Lieu, C. Tian, and T. Naito, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper OtuD5.
[PubMed]

Yu, X.

Zirngibl, M.

M. Zirngibl, Electron. Lett. 27, 560 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Zirngibl, Electron. Lett. 27, 560 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Ennser, G. Della Valle, M. Ibsen, J. Schmulovich, and S. Taccheo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Other (3)

A. Lieu, C. Tian, and T. Naito, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper OtuD5.
[PubMed]

T. Rogowski, S. Taccheo, J. Shmulovich, and K. Ennser, in 31st European Conference on Optical Communications 4, (Institution of Electrical Engineers, 2005), pp. 919-920.

G. Della Valle, A. Festa, S. Taccheo, and K. Ennser, in 32nd European Conference on Optical Communications (Société de l'Electricité, de l'Electronique et des Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication, 2006), paper We3.P.29.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup of the OGC amplifier. (b) Probe channel output variation at 1 kHz burst repetition rate. Burst peak power is 1 dBm . Dotted line, ONOFF time slots.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Peak-to-peak variation versus burst repetition rate for the worst case of 15 out of 16 bursting channels. Bottom curve, forward sweep overshoot only. Horizontal arrows indicate 2 T waveforms intervals (solid arrows, forward sweep; dashed arrows, backward sweep). Vertical lines define ν add 3 , ν drop 3 , ν add , ν drop . (b) Peak-to-peak variation versus burst repetition rate for power modulation of 1 4 with respect to case (a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Waveforms recorded at 10 kHz (bottom) and 19 kHz (top); backward sweep. We show that in both cases two waveforms may occur.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Effect of cavity length reduction on transient overshoots. Upper traces, L = 12 m ; lower traces, L = 0.8 m . Arrows indicate corresponding peaks at ν drop 3 .

Equations (3)

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d n 2 d t = n 2 τ 21 + R P eff K up n 2 2 ,
d P L d t = G 2 Γ 2 1 2 ( L e c ) P L ,
R P eff = R P i = 1 N P in i h ν s A b l ( G 1 ) P L h ν L A b l ( G 2 1 ) ,

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