Abstract

We report a new absolute frequency measurement of the Cs6s8s two-photon transition measured using frequency comb spectroscopy. The fractional frequency uncertainty is 5×1011, a factor of 6 better than previous results. The comb is derived from a stabilized picosecond laser and referenced to an octave-spanning femtosecond frequency comb. The relative merits of picosecond-based frequency combs are discussed, and it is shown that the AC Stark shift of the transition is determined by the average rather than the much larger peak intensity.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, Science 306, 2063 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Witte, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, Science 307, 400 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rouschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 436, 234 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. J. Snadden, A. S. Bell, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, Opt. Commun. 125, 70 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Ye. F. Baklanov and V. P. Chebotayev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 97 (1977).
  7. R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. B. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  8. In principle, AOM 1 in Fig. could be used to scan the ps comb spectrum relative to the optical cavity. But in practice we observe spurious frequency mixing between the acoustic and optical waves in the AOM. While these generated frequencies are extremely weak, they occasionally move into the bandwidth of our lock to the optical cavity during a frequency scan and disrupt the lock circuit.
  9. G. Hagel, C. Nesi, L. Jozefowski, C. Schwob, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, Opt. Commun. 160, 1 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. S. Edwards, National Physics Laboratory, UK, christopher.edwards@npl.co.uk (personal communication).
  11. A. Sieradzan, M. D. Havey, and M. S. Safranova, Phys. Rev. A 69, 022502 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. P. Herrmann, J. Hoffnagle, A. Pedroni, N. Schlumpf, and A. Weis, Opt. Commun. 56, 22 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. de Beauvoir, C. Schwob, O. Acef, L. Jozefowski, L. Hilco, F. Nez, L. Julien, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, Eur. Phys. J. D 12, 61 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. O. Arnoult, F. Nez, C. Schwob, L. Julien, and P. Biraben, Can. J. Phys. 83, 273 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2005

S. Witte, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, Science 307, 400 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rouschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 436, 234 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Arnoult, F. Nez, C. Schwob, L. Julien, and P. Biraben, Can. J. Phys. 83, 273 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. Sieradzan, M. D. Havey, and M. S. Safranova, Phys. Rev. A 69, 022502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, Science 306, 2063 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

B. de Beauvoir, C. Schwob, O. Acef, L. Jozefowski, L. Hilco, F. Nez, L. Julien, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, Eur. Phys. J. D 12, 61 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

G. Hagel, C. Nesi, L. Jozefowski, C. Schwob, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, Opt. Commun. 160, 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. J. Snadden, A. S. Bell, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, Opt. Commun. 125, 70 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1985

P. P. Herrmann, J. Hoffnagle, A. Pedroni, N. Schlumpf, and A. Weis, Opt. Commun. 56, 22 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. B. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1977

Ye. F. Baklanov and V. P. Chebotayev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 97 (1977).

Acef, O.

B. de Beauvoir, C. Schwob, O. Acef, L. Jozefowski, L. Hilco, F. Nez, L. Julien, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, Eur. Phys. J. D 12, 61 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Arnoult, O.

O. Arnoult, F. Nez, C. Schwob, L. Julien, and P. Biraben, Can. J. Phys. 83, 273 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baklanov, Ye. F.

Ye. F. Baklanov and V. P. Chebotayev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 97 (1977).

Bell, A. S.

M. J. Snadden, A. S. Bell, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, Opt. Commun. 125, 70 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Biraben, F.

B. de Beauvoir, C. Schwob, O. Acef, L. Jozefowski, L. Hilco, F. Nez, L. Julien, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, Eur. Phys. J. D 12, 61 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Hagel, C. Nesi, L. Jozefowski, C. Schwob, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, Opt. Commun. 160, 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Biraben, P.

O. Arnoult, F. Nez, C. Schwob, L. Julien, and P. Biraben, Can. J. Phys. 83, 273 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chebotayev, V. P.

Ye. F. Baklanov and V. P. Chebotayev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 97 (1977).

Clairon, A.

B. de Beauvoir, C. Schwob, O. Acef, L. Jozefowski, L. Hilco, F. Nez, L. Julien, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, Eur. Phys. J. D 12, 61 (2000).
[CrossRef]

de Beauvoir, B.

B. de Beauvoir, C. Schwob, O. Acef, L. Jozefowski, L. Hilco, F. Nez, L. Julien, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, Eur. Phys. J. D 12, 61 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. B. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, C. S.

C. S. Edwards, National Physics Laboratory, UK, christopher.edwards@npl.co.uk (personal communication).

Eikema, K. S. E.

S. Witte, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, Science 307, 400 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Felinto, D.

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, Science 306, 2063 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferguson, A. I.

M. J. Snadden, A. S. Bell, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, Opt. Commun. 125, 70 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. B. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gohle, C.

C. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rouschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 436, 234 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagel, G.

G. Hagel, C. Nesi, L. Jozefowski, C. Schwob, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, Opt. Commun. 160, 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. B. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

C. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rouschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 436, 234 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Havey, M. D.

A. Sieradzan, M. D. Havey, and M. S. Safranova, Phys. Rev. A 69, 022502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, M.

C. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rouschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 436, 234 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herrmann, P. P.

P. P. Herrmann, J. Hoffnagle, A. Pedroni, N. Schlumpf, and A. Weis, Opt. Commun. 56, 22 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hilco, L.

B. de Beauvoir, C. Schwob, O. Acef, L. Jozefowski, L. Hilco, F. Nez, L. Julien, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, Eur. Phys. J. D 12, 61 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hoffnagle, J.

P. P. Herrmann, J. Hoffnagle, A. Pedroni, N. Schlumpf, and A. Weis, Opt. Commun. 56, 22 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hogervorst, W.

S. Witte, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, Science 307, 400 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

C. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rouschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 436, 234 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. B. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Jozefowski, L.

B. de Beauvoir, C. Schwob, O. Acef, L. Jozefowski, L. Hilco, F. Nez, L. Julien, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, Eur. Phys. J. D 12, 61 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Hagel, C. Nesi, L. Jozefowski, C. Schwob, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, Opt. Commun. 160, 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Julien, L.

O. Arnoult, F. Nez, C. Schwob, L. Julien, and P. Biraben, Can. J. Phys. 83, 273 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. de Beauvoir, C. Schwob, O. Acef, L. Jozefowski, L. Hilco, F. Nez, L. Julien, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, Eur. Phys. J. D 12, 61 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, F. B.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. B. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

C. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rouschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 436, 234 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lawall, J. R.

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, Science 306, 2063 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marian, A.

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, Science 306, 2063 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. B. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nesi, C.

G. Hagel, C. Nesi, L. Jozefowski, C. Schwob, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, Opt. Commun. 160, 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nez, F.

O. Arnoult, F. Nez, C. Schwob, L. Julien, and P. Biraben, Can. J. Phys. 83, 273 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. de Beauvoir, C. Schwob, O. Acef, L. Jozefowski, L. Hilco, F. Nez, L. Julien, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, Eur. Phys. J. D 12, 61 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Hagel, C. Nesi, L. Jozefowski, C. Schwob, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, Opt. Commun. 160, 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pedroni, A.

P. P. Herrmann, J. Hoffnagle, A. Pedroni, N. Schlumpf, and A. Weis, Opt. Commun. 56, 22 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Riis, E.

M. J. Snadden, A. S. Bell, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, Opt. Commun. 125, 70 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rouschenberger, J.

C. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rouschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 436, 234 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Safranova, M. S.

A. Sieradzan, M. D. Havey, and M. S. Safranova, Phys. Rev. A 69, 022502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schlumpf, N.

P. P. Herrmann, J. Hoffnagle, A. Pedroni, N. Schlumpf, and A. Weis, Opt. Commun. 56, 22 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Schuessler, H. A.

C. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rouschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 436, 234 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwob, C.

O. Arnoult, F. Nez, C. Schwob, L. Julien, and P. Biraben, Can. J. Phys. 83, 273 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. de Beauvoir, C. Schwob, O. Acef, L. Jozefowski, L. Hilco, F. Nez, L. Julien, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, Eur. Phys. J. D 12, 61 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Hagel, C. Nesi, L. Jozefowski, C. Schwob, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, Opt. Commun. 160, 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sieradzan, A.

A. Sieradzan, M. D. Havey, and M. S. Safranova, Phys. Rev. A 69, 022502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Snadden, M. J.

M. J. Snadden, A. S. Bell, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, Opt. Commun. 125, 70 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stowe, M. C.

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, Science 306, 2063 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ubachs, W.

S. Witte, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, Science 307, 400 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udem, Th.

C. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rouschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 436, 234 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. B. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Weis, A.

P. P. Herrmann, J. Hoffnagle, A. Pedroni, N. Schlumpf, and A. Weis, Opt. Commun. 56, 22 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Witte, S.

S. Witte, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, Science 307, 400 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, Science 306, 2063 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zinkstok, R. Th.

S. Witte, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, Science 307, 400 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. B. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Ye. F. Baklanov and V. P. Chebotayev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 97 (1977).

Can. J. Phys.

O. Arnoult, F. Nez, C. Schwob, L. Julien, and P. Biraben, Can. J. Phys. 83, 273 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D

B. de Beauvoir, C. Schwob, O. Acef, L. Jozefowski, L. Hilco, F. Nez, L. Julien, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, Eur. Phys. J. D 12, 61 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rouschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 436, 234 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

M. J. Snadden, A. S. Bell, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, Opt. Commun. 125, 70 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Hagel, C. Nesi, L. Jozefowski, C. Schwob, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, Opt. Commun. 160, 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Herrmann, J. Hoffnagle, A. Pedroni, N. Schlumpf, and A. Weis, Opt. Commun. 56, 22 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

A. Sieradzan, M. D. Havey, and M. S. Safranova, Phys. Rev. A 69, 022502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, Science 306, 2063 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Witte, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, Science 307, 400 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

C. S. Edwards, National Physics Laboratory, UK, christopher.edwards@npl.co.uk (personal communication).

In principle, AOM 1 in Fig. could be used to scan the ps comb spectrum relative to the optical cavity. But in practice we observe spurious frequency mixing between the acoustic and optical waves in the AOM. While these generated frequencies are extremely weak, they occasionally move into the bandwidth of our lock to the optical cavity during a frequency scan and disrupt the lock circuit.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup and partial energy level diagram for Cs. The laser frequency is shifted by using AOM 2, and the intensity is stabilized by using AOM 3. The distance between the mirror and the cell is c 2 f rep . An optical isolator is used to prevent the backreflected light from going back into the laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Fluorescence measurement showing both hyperfine components of the Cs 6 s 8 s transition. Because of the comb structure, the signal repeats itself every f rep 2 . (b) F = 3 to F = 3 hyperfine component of the 6 s 8 s transition fitted to a Lorentzian line profile. These data are an average of nine separate scans, each measured at 450 mW laser power, a Gaussian waist of 0.72 mm , and a 1 s integration time per data point. The bottom panel shows the plot residuals as a percentage of the background-subtracted Lorentzian peak height.

Equations (2)

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ν 6 s 8 s ( F = 3 ) = 364 507 238 417 ( 15 ) kHz ,
ν 6 s 8 s ( F = 4 ) = 364 503 080 351 ( 15 ) kHz .

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