Abstract

In vivo imaging of the mouse retina using visible and near infrared wavelengths does not achieve diffraction-limited resolution due to wavefront aberrations induced by the eye. Considering the pupil size and axial dimension of the eye, it is expected that unaberrated imaging of the retina would have a transverse resolution of 2μm. Higher-order aberrations in retinal imaging of human can be compensated for by using adaptive optics. We demonstrate an adaptive optics system for in vivo imaging of fluorescent structures in the retina of a mouse, using a microelectromechanical system membrane mirror and a Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor that detects fluorescent wavefront.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006

2004

2002

1999

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, Nature 397, 520 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

Ahamd, K.

Albanese, M. J.

Applegate, R. A.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. H. Webb, and V. S. T. Members, in Vision Science and its Applications, V.Lakshminarayanan, ed., Vol. 35 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 232-244.

Bellman, C.

M. Paques, M. Simonutti, M. J. Roux, S. Picaud, E. Levavassuer, C. Bellman, and J.-A. Sahel, Vision Res. 46, 1336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bierden, P.

Bifano, T.

Bigelow, C. E.

Burns, S. A.

Campbell, M. C. W.

Chen, L.

Delori, F. C.

F. C. Delori, R. H. Webb, and D. M. Sliney, 'Maximum permissible exposures for ocular safety (ANSI 2000), with emphasis on ophthalmic devices,' J. Opt. Soc. A (to be published).

Doble, N.

Donnelly, W. J.

Dubra, A.

Ferguson, R. D.

García de la Cera, E.

E. García de la Cera, G. Rodríguez, L. Llorente, F. Schaeffel, and S. Marcos, Vision Res. 46, 2546 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gee, B. P.

Gray, D. C.

Hammer, D. X.

Herbert, T. J.

Higashide, T.

T. Higashide, I. Kawaguchi, S. Ohkubo, H. Takeda, and K. Sugiyama, Invest. Opthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2943 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Iftimia, N. V.

Kawaguchi, I.

T. Higashide, I. Kawaguchi, S. Ohkubo, H. Takeda, and K. Sugiyama, Invest. Opthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2943 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Levavassuer, E.

M. Paques, M. Simonutti, M. J. Roux, S. Picaud, E. Levavassuer, C. Bellman, and J.-A. Sahel, Vision Res. 46, 1336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liang, J.

Llorente, L.

E. García de la Cera, G. Rodríguez, L. Llorente, F. Schaeffel, and S. Marcos, Vision Res. 46, 2546 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marcos, S.

E. García de la Cera, G. Rodríguez, L. Llorente, F. Schaeffel, and S. Marcos, Vision Res. 46, 2546 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Members, V. S. T.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. H. Webb, and V. S. T. Members, in Vision Science and its Applications, V.Lakshminarayanan, ed., Vol. 35 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 232-244.

Merigan, W.

Miller, D.

Ohkubo, S.

T. Higashide, I. Kawaguchi, S. Ohkubo, H. Takeda, and K. Sugiyama, Invest. Opthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2943 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Olivier, S.

Paques, M.

M. Paques, M. Simonutti, M. J. Roux, S. Picaud, E. Levavassuer, C. Bellman, and J.-A. Sahel, Vision Res. 46, 1336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Picaud, S.

M. Paques, M. Simonutti, M. J. Roux, S. Picaud, E. Levavassuer, C. Bellman, and J.-A. Sahel, Vision Res. 46, 1336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Poonja, S.

Porter, J.

Queener, H.

Rasband, W. S.

W. S. Rasband, 'ImageJ' National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA, http://rsb.info.nih.gov/ij/, 1997-2006.

Reinholz, E.

Rodríguez, G.

E. García de la Cera, G. Rodríguez, L. Llorente, F. Schaeffel, and S. Marcos, Vision Res. 46, 2546 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Romero-Borja, F.

Roorda, A.

Roux, M. J.

M. Paques, M. Simonutti, M. J. Roux, S. Picaud, E. Levavassuer, C. Bellman, and J.-A. Sahel, Vision Res. 46, 1336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sahel, J.-A.

M. Paques, M. Simonutti, M. J. Roux, S. Picaud, E. Levavassuer, C. Bellman, and J.-A. Sahel, Vision Res. 46, 1336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schaeffel, F.

E. García de la Cera, G. Rodríguez, L. Llorente, F. Schaeffel, and S. Marcos, Vision Res. 46, 2546 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schwiegerling, J. T.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. H. Webb, and V. S. T. Members, in Vision Science and its Applications, V.Lakshminarayanan, ed., Vol. 35 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 232-244.

Simonutti, M.

M. Paques, M. Simonutti, M. J. Roux, S. Picaud, E. Levavassuer, C. Bellman, and J.-A. Sahel, Vision Res. 46, 1336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Singer, B.

Sliney, D. M.

F. C. Delori, R. H. Webb, and D. M. Sliney, 'Maximum permissible exposures for ocular safety (ANSI 2000), with emphasis on ophthalmic devices,' J. Opt. Soc. A (to be published).

Sugiyama, K.

T. Higashide, I. Kawaguchi, S. Ohkubo, H. Takeda, and K. Sugiyama, Invest. Opthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2943 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, H.

T. Higashide, I. Kawaguchi, S. Ohkubo, H. Takeda, and K. Sugiyama, Invest. Opthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2943 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thibos, L. N.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. H. Webb, and V. S. T. Members, in Vision Science and its Applications, V.Lakshminarayanan, ed., Vol. 35 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 232-244.

Tumbar, R.

Twietmeyer, T. H.

Ustun, T. E.

Webb, R. H.

R. H. Webb, M. J. Albanese, Y. Zhou, T. Bifano, and S. A. Burns, Appl. Opt. 43, 5330 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. H. Webb, and V. S. T. Members, in Vision Science and its Applications, V.Lakshminarayanan, ed., Vol. 35 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 232-244.

F. C. Delori, R. H. Webb, and D. M. Sliney, 'Maximum permissible exposures for ocular safety (ANSI 2000), with emphasis on ophthalmic devices,' J. Opt. Soc. A (to be published).

Williams, D. R.

Wolfing, J. I.

Yoon, G.

Zhang, Y.

Zhou, Y.

Appl. Opt.

Invest. Opthalmol. Visual Sci.

T. Higashide, I. Kawaguchi, S. Ohkubo, H. Takeda, and K. Sugiyama, Invest. Opthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2943 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Nature

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, Nature 397, 520 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Vision Res.

E. García de la Cera, G. Rodríguez, L. Llorente, F. Schaeffel, and S. Marcos, Vision Res. 46, 2546 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Paques, M. Simonutti, M. J. Roux, S. Picaud, E. Levavassuer, C. Bellman, and J.-A. Sahel, Vision Res. 46, 1336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

F. C. Delori, R. H. Webb, and D. M. Sliney, 'Maximum permissible exposures for ocular safety (ANSI 2000), with emphasis on ophthalmic devices,' J. Opt. Soc. A (to be published).

W. S. Rasband, 'ImageJ' National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA, http://rsb.info.nih.gov/ij/, 1997-2006.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. H. Webb, and V. S. T. Members, in Vision Science and its Applications, V.Lakshminarayanan, ed., Vol. 35 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 232-244.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. DM, deformable mirror, SHWS, Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor. PMT, photomultiplier tube for confocal detection of fluorescence, HS, polygon scanner for the horizontal scan. VS, galvanometric mirror for the vertical scan, OBJ, imaging objective, EYE, mouse eye sample.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

In vivo images of GFP-labeled microglia in the retina. (a) Without AO correction. A line plot is given for the region of the image that corresponds to the white line. (b) With AO correction. In (a) and (b) pixel intensity from the original, unprocessed image along the white line is plotted on the same scale. (c) Ex vivo flat-mount image of the same retina. The dimension bar is 50 μ m . Both inlayed line plots have the same x and y scale.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

In vivo images of retinal blood vessels injected with an Evan’s Blue solution and measured SHWS spot displacements (arrows) with calculated wavefront (gray-scale image). The pupil at the SHWS is 4 mm across, and lenslets are 300 μ m in diameter and have a 7 mm focal length. (a) Image without AO correction. (b) Wavefront measurements before AO correction. (c) Image with AO correction. (d) Wavefront measurements after AO correction. The wavefront scale bar represents 3 to 3 μ m .

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