Abstract

Shot-noise-limited laser operation over a wide spectral bandwidth is demonstrated by using a semiconductor active medium inserted into a high-Q external cavity. This approach ensures, with a compact design, a sufficiently long photon lifetime to reach the oscillation-relaxation-free class A regime. The laser relative intensity noise is limited to the shot-noise relative floor, 156dBHz for a 1mA detected photocurrent, over the 100MHzto18GHz bandwidth. The optimization of the laser cavity is discussed, and convenient shot-noise-limited operation is shown to be a trade-off between the cavity length and laser mode filtering.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Halbritter, F. Riemenschneider, J. Jacquet, J.-G. Provost, I. Sagnes, and P. Meissner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 723 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Petermann, Laser Diode Modulation and Noise (Academic, 1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. E. Betts, J. P. Donnelly, J. N. Walpole, S. H. Groves, F. J. O'Donnell, L. J. Bailey, and A. Napoleone, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1280 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Merlet, S. Formont, D. Dolfi, S. Tonda-Goldstein, N. Vodjdani, G. Auvray, S. Blanc, C. Fourdin, Y. Canal, and J. Chazelas, in 2004 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE/LEOS, 2004), p. 305.
  5. C. C. Harb, M. B. Gray, H.-A. Bachor, R. Schilling, P. Rottengatter, I. Freitag, and H. Welling, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2907 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Baili, M. Alouini, C. Moronvalle, D. Dolfi, and F. Bretenaker, Opt. Lett. 31, 62 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. T. Arecchi, G. L. Lippi, G. P. Puccioni, and J. R. Tredicce, Opt. Commun. 51, 314 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. K. Marshall, J. Paslaski, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2496 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Nagarajan, S. Levy, A. Mar, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 4 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Wilmsen, H. Temkin, and L. A. Coldren, Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).
  11. J. Dion, I. Sagnes, M. Strassner, M. Jacquemet, P. Georges, A. Garnache, H. M. Ng, and A. G. Baca, Proc. Electrochem. Soc. 6, 177 (2004).

2006 (1)

2004 (2)

H. Halbritter, F. Riemenschneider, J. Jacquet, J.-G. Provost, I. Sagnes, and P. Meissner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 723 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Dion, I. Sagnes, M. Strassner, M. Jacquemet, P. Georges, A. Garnache, H. M. Ng, and A. G. Baca, Proc. Electrochem. Soc. 6, 177 (2004).

1997 (1)

G. E. Betts, J. P. Donnelly, J. N. Walpole, S. H. Groves, F. J. O'Donnell, L. J. Bailey, and A. Napoleone, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1280 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

W. K. Marshall, J. Paslaski, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2496 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

C. C. Harb, M. B. Gray, H.-A. Bachor, R. Schilling, P. Rottengatter, I. Freitag, and H. Welling, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2907 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. Nagarajan, S. Levy, A. Mar, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 4 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

F. T. Arecchi, G. L. Lippi, G. P. Puccioni, and J. R. Tredicce, Opt. Commun. 51, 314 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Alouini, M.

Arecchi, F. T.

F. T. Arecchi, G. L. Lippi, G. P. Puccioni, and J. R. Tredicce, Opt. Commun. 51, 314 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Auvray, G.

T. Merlet, S. Formont, D. Dolfi, S. Tonda-Goldstein, N. Vodjdani, G. Auvray, S. Blanc, C. Fourdin, Y. Canal, and J. Chazelas, in 2004 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE/LEOS, 2004), p. 305.

Baca, A. G.

J. Dion, I. Sagnes, M. Strassner, M. Jacquemet, P. Georges, A. Garnache, H. M. Ng, and A. G. Baca, Proc. Electrochem. Soc. 6, 177 (2004).

Bachor, H.-A.

C. C. Harb, M. B. Gray, H.-A. Bachor, R. Schilling, P. Rottengatter, I. Freitag, and H. Welling, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2907 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, L. J.

G. E. Betts, J. P. Donnelly, J. N. Walpole, S. H. Groves, F. J. O'Donnell, L. J. Bailey, and A. Napoleone, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1280 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baili, G.

Betts, G. E.

G. E. Betts, J. P. Donnelly, J. N. Walpole, S. H. Groves, F. J. O'Donnell, L. J. Bailey, and A. Napoleone, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1280 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Blanc, S.

T. Merlet, S. Formont, D. Dolfi, S. Tonda-Goldstein, N. Vodjdani, G. Auvray, S. Blanc, C. Fourdin, Y. Canal, and J. Chazelas, in 2004 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE/LEOS, 2004), p. 305.

Bowers, J. E.

R. Nagarajan, S. Levy, A. Mar, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 4 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bretenaker, F.

Canal, Y.

T. Merlet, S. Formont, D. Dolfi, S. Tonda-Goldstein, N. Vodjdani, G. Auvray, S. Blanc, C. Fourdin, Y. Canal, and J. Chazelas, in 2004 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE/LEOS, 2004), p. 305.

Chazelas, J.

T. Merlet, S. Formont, D. Dolfi, S. Tonda-Goldstein, N. Vodjdani, G. Auvray, S. Blanc, C. Fourdin, Y. Canal, and J. Chazelas, in 2004 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE/LEOS, 2004), p. 305.

Coldren, L. A.

C. Wilmsen, H. Temkin, and L. A. Coldren, Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

Dion, J.

J. Dion, I. Sagnes, M. Strassner, M. Jacquemet, P. Georges, A. Garnache, H. M. Ng, and A. G. Baca, Proc. Electrochem. Soc. 6, 177 (2004).

Dolfi, D.

G. Baili, M. Alouini, C. Moronvalle, D. Dolfi, and F. Bretenaker, Opt. Lett. 31, 62 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Merlet, S. Formont, D. Dolfi, S. Tonda-Goldstein, N. Vodjdani, G. Auvray, S. Blanc, C. Fourdin, Y. Canal, and J. Chazelas, in 2004 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE/LEOS, 2004), p. 305.

Donnelly, J. P.

G. E. Betts, J. P. Donnelly, J. N. Walpole, S. H. Groves, F. J. O'Donnell, L. J. Bailey, and A. Napoleone, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1280 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Formont, S.

T. Merlet, S. Formont, D. Dolfi, S. Tonda-Goldstein, N. Vodjdani, G. Auvray, S. Blanc, C. Fourdin, Y. Canal, and J. Chazelas, in 2004 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE/LEOS, 2004), p. 305.

Fourdin, C.

T. Merlet, S. Formont, D. Dolfi, S. Tonda-Goldstein, N. Vodjdani, G. Auvray, S. Blanc, C. Fourdin, Y. Canal, and J. Chazelas, in 2004 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE/LEOS, 2004), p. 305.

Freitag, I.

C. C. Harb, M. B. Gray, H.-A. Bachor, R. Schilling, P. Rottengatter, I. Freitag, and H. Welling, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2907 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Garnache, A.

J. Dion, I. Sagnes, M. Strassner, M. Jacquemet, P. Georges, A. Garnache, H. M. Ng, and A. G. Baca, Proc. Electrochem. Soc. 6, 177 (2004).

Georges, P.

J. Dion, I. Sagnes, M. Strassner, M. Jacquemet, P. Georges, A. Garnache, H. M. Ng, and A. G. Baca, Proc. Electrochem. Soc. 6, 177 (2004).

Gray, M. B.

C. C. Harb, M. B. Gray, H.-A. Bachor, R. Schilling, P. Rottengatter, I. Freitag, and H. Welling, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2907 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Groves, S. H.

G. E. Betts, J. P. Donnelly, J. N. Walpole, S. H. Groves, F. J. O'Donnell, L. J. Bailey, and A. Napoleone, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1280 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Halbritter, H.

H. Halbritter, F. Riemenschneider, J. Jacquet, J.-G. Provost, I. Sagnes, and P. Meissner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 723 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Harb, C. C.

C. C. Harb, M. B. Gray, H.-A. Bachor, R. Schilling, P. Rottengatter, I. Freitag, and H. Welling, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2907 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jacquemet, M.

J. Dion, I. Sagnes, M. Strassner, M. Jacquemet, P. Georges, A. Garnache, H. M. Ng, and A. G. Baca, Proc. Electrochem. Soc. 6, 177 (2004).

Jacquet, J.

H. Halbritter, F. Riemenschneider, J. Jacquet, J.-G. Provost, I. Sagnes, and P. Meissner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 723 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Levy, S.

R. Nagarajan, S. Levy, A. Mar, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 4 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lippi, G. L.

F. T. Arecchi, G. L. Lippi, G. P. Puccioni, and J. R. Tredicce, Opt. Commun. 51, 314 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Mar, A.

R. Nagarajan, S. Levy, A. Mar, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 4 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, W. K.

W. K. Marshall, J. Paslaski, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2496 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Meissner, P.

H. Halbritter, F. Riemenschneider, J. Jacquet, J.-G. Provost, I. Sagnes, and P. Meissner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 723 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Merlet, T.

T. Merlet, S. Formont, D. Dolfi, S. Tonda-Goldstein, N. Vodjdani, G. Auvray, S. Blanc, C. Fourdin, Y. Canal, and J. Chazelas, in 2004 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE/LEOS, 2004), p. 305.

Moronvalle, C.

Nagarajan, R.

R. Nagarajan, S. Levy, A. Mar, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 4 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Napoleone, A.

G. E. Betts, J. P. Donnelly, J. N. Walpole, S. H. Groves, F. J. O'Donnell, L. J. Bailey, and A. Napoleone, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1280 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ng, H. M.

J. Dion, I. Sagnes, M. Strassner, M. Jacquemet, P. Georges, A. Garnache, H. M. Ng, and A. G. Baca, Proc. Electrochem. Soc. 6, 177 (2004).

O'Donnell, F. J.

G. E. Betts, J. P. Donnelly, J. N. Walpole, S. H. Groves, F. J. O'Donnell, L. J. Bailey, and A. Napoleone, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1280 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Paslaski, J.

W. K. Marshall, J. Paslaski, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2496 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

K. Petermann, Laser Diode Modulation and Noise (Academic, 1988).
[CrossRef]

Provost, J.-G.

H. Halbritter, F. Riemenschneider, J. Jacquet, J.-G. Provost, I. Sagnes, and P. Meissner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 723 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Puccioni, G. P.

F. T. Arecchi, G. L. Lippi, G. P. Puccioni, and J. R. Tredicce, Opt. Commun. 51, 314 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Riemenschneider, F.

H. Halbritter, F. Riemenschneider, J. Jacquet, J.-G. Provost, I. Sagnes, and P. Meissner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 723 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rottengatter, P.

C. C. Harb, M. B. Gray, H.-A. Bachor, R. Schilling, P. Rottengatter, I. Freitag, and H. Welling, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2907 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sagnes, I.

H. Halbritter, F. Riemenschneider, J. Jacquet, J.-G. Provost, I. Sagnes, and P. Meissner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 723 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Dion, I. Sagnes, M. Strassner, M. Jacquemet, P. Georges, A. Garnache, H. M. Ng, and A. G. Baca, Proc. Electrochem. Soc. 6, 177 (2004).

Schilling, R.

C. C. Harb, M. B. Gray, H.-A. Bachor, R. Schilling, P. Rottengatter, I. Freitag, and H. Welling, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2907 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Strassner, M.

J. Dion, I. Sagnes, M. Strassner, M. Jacquemet, P. Georges, A. Garnache, H. M. Ng, and A. G. Baca, Proc. Electrochem. Soc. 6, 177 (2004).

Temkin, H.

C. Wilmsen, H. Temkin, and L. A. Coldren, Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

Tonda-Goldstein, S.

T. Merlet, S. Formont, D. Dolfi, S. Tonda-Goldstein, N. Vodjdani, G. Auvray, S. Blanc, C. Fourdin, Y. Canal, and J. Chazelas, in 2004 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE/LEOS, 2004), p. 305.

Tredicce, J. R.

F. T. Arecchi, G. L. Lippi, G. P. Puccioni, and J. R. Tredicce, Opt. Commun. 51, 314 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Vodjdani, N.

T. Merlet, S. Formont, D. Dolfi, S. Tonda-Goldstein, N. Vodjdani, G. Auvray, S. Blanc, C. Fourdin, Y. Canal, and J. Chazelas, in 2004 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE/LEOS, 2004), p. 305.

Walpole, J. N.

G. E. Betts, J. P. Donnelly, J. N. Walpole, S. H. Groves, F. J. O'Donnell, L. J. Bailey, and A. Napoleone, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1280 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Welling, H.

C. C. Harb, M. B. Gray, H.-A. Bachor, R. Schilling, P. Rottengatter, I. Freitag, and H. Welling, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2907 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wilmsen, C.

C. Wilmsen, H. Temkin, and L. A. Coldren, Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

Yariv, A.

W. K. Marshall, J. Paslaski, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2496 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. K. Marshall, J. Paslaski, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2496 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. C. Harb, M. B. Gray, H.-A. Bachor, R. Schilling, P. Rottengatter, I. Freitag, and H. Welling, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2907 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

R. Nagarajan, S. Levy, A. Mar, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 4 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Halbritter, F. Riemenschneider, J. Jacquet, J.-G. Provost, I. Sagnes, and P. Meissner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 723 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

G. E. Betts, J. P. Donnelly, J. N. Walpole, S. H. Groves, F. J. O'Donnell, L. J. Bailey, and A. Napoleone, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1280 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

F. T. Arecchi, G. L. Lippi, G. P. Puccioni, and J. R. Tredicce, Opt. Commun. 51, 314 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

J. Dion, I. Sagnes, M. Strassner, M. Jacquemet, P. Georges, A. Garnache, H. M. Ng, and A. G. Baca, Proc. Electrochem. Soc. 6, 177 (2004).

Other (3)

C. Wilmsen, H. Temkin, and L. A. Coldren, Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

T. Merlet, S. Formont, D. Dolfi, S. Tonda-Goldstein, N. Vodjdani, G. Auvray, S. Blanc, C. Fourdin, Y. Canal, and J. Chazelas, in 2004 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE/LEOS, 2004), p. 305.

K. Petermann, Laser Diode Modulation and Noise (Academic, 1988).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Gain chip description. AR, antireflection coating. (b) Experimental setup. Filter, uncoated 150 μ m Fabry–Perot filter; output coupler, Rc = 50 mm and transmission 1% at 1000 nm . (c) Optical spectrum scanned with a confocal Fabry–Perot interferometer ( FSR = 7.5 GHz ) . The laser operates in single-frequency regime. The intensity of nonlasing side modes is below the detection noise level.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Low-frequency RIN of 1 mA detected photocurrent. Dashed line, expected relative shot-noise level for 1 mA detected photocurrent, 156 dB Hz . (b) VCSEL RIN experimental measurement over the whole 18 GHz bandwidth ( RBW = 3 MHz ) . The thermal noise level at 174 dB Hz is also reported. Inset, enlargement of the peak at 3.4 GHz ( RBW = 30 kHz ) over a frequency span of 50 MHz .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

RIN measurements for a laser cavity formed by the 1 2 -VCSEL and an output coupler with a radius of curvature of 25 mm and 0.5% transmission ( RBW = 3 MHz ) . (a) The cavity length is 17 mm ( FSR = 8.7 GHz ) , and the detected photocurrent is 1 mA . Inset, enlargement of the peak at 8.7 GHz ( RBW = 100 kHz ) over a frequency span of 50 MHz . (b) The cavity length is 8 mm ( FSR = 18.75 GHz ) , and the detected photocurrent is 1 mA . The dashed lines correspond to the shot-noise level.

Equations (1)

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SMSR n = γ cav 2 h c 2 δ γ n P out λ ,

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