Abstract

A high-resolution miniature spectrometer has been demonstrated by utilizing a 128-channel integrated filter array, fabricated by using the combinatorial deposition technique, as a dispersive component whose passbands range from 722.0to880.0nm with a bandwidth (or spectral resolution) from 1.7to3.8nm and an average channel interval of 1.2nm. The miniature spectrometer is smaller than 1cm3 without any moving parts. This kind of miniature spectrometer has the advantages of very low payload, high resolution, and high reliability simultaneously, which are especially urgently needed for space applications.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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K. Chaganti, I. Salakhutdinov, I. Avrutsky, and G. W. Auner, Opt. Express 14, 4065 (2006).

S.-W. Wang, X. Chen, W. Lu, L. Wang, Y. Wu, and Z. Wang, Opt. Lett. 31, 332 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Wang, D. Liu, B. Lin, X. Chen, and W. Lu, Appl. Phys. B 82, 637 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Wang, L. Wang, Y. Wu, Z. Wang, D. Liu, B. Lin, X. Chen, and W. Lu, Acta Opt. Sin. 26, 746 (2006) (in Chinese).

2005

P. Cheben, I. Powell, S. Janz, and D.-X. Xu, Opt. Lett. 30, 1824 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, S. R. Bhalotra, H. L. Kung, and D. A. B. Miller, Sens. Actuators, A 120, 110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

R. F. Wolffenbuttel, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 197 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Wang, D. Liu, B. Lin, X. Chen, Z. Li, Y. Shi, W. Wang, and W. Lu, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 25, 1677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

J. H. Correia, G. de Graf, M. Bartek, and R. F. Wolffenbuttel, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 37, 1344 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Brennan, J. Alderman, I. Sattler, J. Walshe, J. Huang, B. O. Connor, and C. O. Mathuna, Infrared Phys. Technol. 43, 69 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Kung, S. R. Bhalotra, J. D. Mansell, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, Jr., IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

D. Sander and J. Muller, Sens. Actuators, A 88, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Lammel, S. Schweizer, and Ph. Renaud, Sens. Actuators, A 92, 52 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Kong, D. D. L. Wijngaards, and R. F. Wolffenbuttel, Sens. Actuators, A 92, 88 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

1996

M. Varasi, M. Signorazzi, A. Vannucci, and J. Dunphy, Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1990

Alderman, J.

D. Brennan, J. Alderman, I. Sattler, J. Walshe, J. Huang, B. O. Connor, and C. O. Mathuna, Infrared Phys. Technol. 43, 69 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Anheier, N. C.

Auner, G. W.

K. Chaganti, I. Salakhutdinov, I. Avrutsky, and G. W. Auner, Opt. Express 14, 4065 (2006).

Avrutsky, I.

K. Chaganti, I. Salakhutdinov, I. Avrutsky, and G. W. Auner, Opt. Express 14, 4065 (2006).

Bartek, M.

J. H. Correia, G. de Graf, M. Bartek, and R. F. Wolffenbuttel, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 37, 1344 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bhalotra, S. R.

H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, S. R. Bhalotra, H. L. Kung, and D. A. B. Miller, Sens. Actuators, A 120, 110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Kung, S. R. Bhalotra, J. D. Mansell, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, Jr., IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brennan, D.

D. Brennan, J. Alderman, I. Sattler, J. Walshe, J. Huang, B. O. Connor, and C. O. Mathuna, Infrared Phys. Technol. 43, 69 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chaganti, K.

K. Chaganti, I. Salakhutdinov, I. Avrutsky, and G. W. Auner, Opt. Express 14, 4065 (2006).

Cheben, P.

Chen, X.

S.-W. Wang, X. Chen, W. Lu, L. Wang, Y. Wu, and Z. Wang, Opt. Lett. 31, 332 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Wang, D. Liu, B. Lin, X. Chen, and W. Lu, Appl. Phys. B 82, 637 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Wang, L. Wang, Y. Wu, Z. Wang, D. Liu, B. Lin, X. Chen, and W. Lu, Acta Opt. Sin. 26, 746 (2006) (in Chinese).

S.-W. Wang, D. Liu, B. Lin, X. Chen, Z. Li, Y. Shi, W. Wang, and W. Lu, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 25, 1677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Wang, M. Li, C. Xia, H. Wang, X. Chen, and W. Lu, '128 Channels of integrated filter array rapidly fabricated by using the combinatorial deposition technique,' submitted to Appl. Phys. B.

Connor, B. O.

D. Brennan, J. Alderman, I. Sattler, J. Walshe, J. Huang, B. O. Connor, and C. O. Mathuna, Infrared Phys. Technol. 43, 69 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Correia, J. H.

J. H. Correia, G. de Graf, M. Bartek, and R. F. Wolffenbuttel, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 37, 1344 (2002).
[CrossRef]

de Graf, G.

J. H. Correia, G. de Graf, M. Bartek, and R. F. Wolffenbuttel, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 37, 1344 (2002).
[CrossRef]

de Rooij, N. F.

Dunphy, J.

M. Varasi, M. Signorazzi, A. Vannucci, and J. Dunphy, Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, D. S.

Harris, J. S.

H. L. Kung, S. R. Bhalotra, J. D. Mansell, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, Jr., IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Herzig, H. P.

Huang, J.

D. Brennan, J. Alderman, I. Sattler, J. Walshe, J. Huang, B. O. Connor, and C. O. Mathuna, Infrared Phys. Technol. 43, 69 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S.

Knipp, D.

H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, S. R. Bhalotra, H. L. Kung, and D. A. B. Miller, Sens. Actuators, A 120, 110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kong, S. H.

S. H. Kong, D. D. L. Wijngaards, and R. F. Wolffenbuttel, Sens. Actuators, A 92, 88 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kung, H. L.

H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, S. R. Bhalotra, H. L. Kung, and D. A. B. Miller, Sens. Actuators, A 120, 110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Kung, S. R. Bhalotra, J. D. Mansell, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, Jr., IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lammel, G.

G. Lammel, S. Schweizer, and Ph. Renaud, Sens. Actuators, A 92, 52 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

S.-W. Wang, M. Li, C. Xia, H. Wang, X. Chen, and W. Lu, '128 Channels of integrated filter array rapidly fabricated by using the combinatorial deposition technique,' submitted to Appl. Phys. B.

Li, Z.

S.-W. Wang, D. Liu, B. Lin, X. Chen, Z. Li, Y. Shi, W. Wang, and W. Lu, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 25, 1677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, B.

S.-W. Wang, D. Liu, B. Lin, X. Chen, and W. Lu, Appl. Phys. B 82, 637 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Wang, L. Wang, Y. Wu, Z. Wang, D. Liu, B. Lin, X. Chen, and W. Lu, Acta Opt. Sin. 26, 746 (2006) (in Chinese).

S.-W. Wang, D. Liu, B. Lin, X. Chen, Z. Li, Y. Shi, W. Wang, and W. Lu, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 25, 1677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D.

S.-W. Wang, L. Wang, Y. Wu, Z. Wang, D. Liu, B. Lin, X. Chen, and W. Lu, Acta Opt. Sin. 26, 746 (2006) (in Chinese).

S.-W. Wang, D. Liu, B. Lin, X. Chen, and W. Lu, Appl. Phys. B 82, 637 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Wang, D. Liu, B. Lin, X. Chen, Z. Li, Y. Shi, W. Wang, and W. Lu, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 25, 1677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lu, W.

S.-W. Wang, L. Wang, Y. Wu, Z. Wang, D. Liu, B. Lin, X. Chen, and W. Lu, Acta Opt. Sin. 26, 746 (2006) (in Chinese).

S.-W. Wang, D. Liu, B. Lin, X. Chen, and W. Lu, Appl. Phys. B 82, 637 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Wang, X. Chen, W. Lu, L. Wang, Y. Wu, and Z. Wang, Opt. Lett. 31, 332 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Wang, D. Liu, B. Lin, X. Chen, Z. Li, Y. Shi, W. Wang, and W. Lu, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 25, 1677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Wang, M. Li, C. Xia, H. Wang, X. Chen, and W. Lu, '128 Channels of integrated filter array rapidly fabricated by using the combinatorial deposition technique,' submitted to Appl. Phys. B.

Mansell, J. D.

H. L. Kung, S. R. Bhalotra, J. D. Mansell, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, Jr., IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Manzardo, O.

Marxer, C. R.

Mathuna, C. O.

D. Brennan, J. Alderman, I. Sattler, J. Walshe, J. Huang, B. O. Connor, and C. O. Mathuna, Infrared Phys. Technol. 43, 69 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Milica, A. M.

A. M. Milica, Proc. SPIE 1298, 127 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, S. R. Bhalotra, H. L. Kung, and D. A. B. Miller, Sens. Actuators, A 120, 110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Kung, S. R. Bhalotra, J. D. Mansell, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, Jr., IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Muller, J.

D. Sander and J. Muller, Sens. Actuators, A 88, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nishihara, H.

Nishio, K.

Okano, M.

Okayama, F.

Powell, I.

Renaud, Ph.

G. Lammel, S. Schweizer, and Ph. Renaud, Sens. Actuators, A 92, 52 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Salakhutdinov, I.

K. Chaganti, I. Salakhutdinov, I. Avrutsky, and G. W. Auner, Opt. Express 14, 4065 (2006).

Sander, D.

D. Sander and J. Muller, Sens. Actuators, A 88, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, T.

Satoh, K.

Sattler, I.

D. Brennan, J. Alderman, I. Sattler, J. Walshe, J. Huang, B. O. Connor, and C. O. Mathuna, Infrared Phys. Technol. 43, 69 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schweizer, S.

G. Lammel, S. Schweizer, and Ph. Renaud, Sens. Actuators, A 92, 52 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

S.-W. Wang, D. Liu, B. Lin, X. Chen, Z. Li, Y. Shi, W. Wang, and W. Lu, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 25, 1677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shiroshita, K.

Signorazzi, M.

M. Varasi, M. Signorazzi, A. Vannucci, and J. Dunphy, Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stiebig, H.

H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, S. R. Bhalotra, H. L. Kung, and D. A. B. Miller, Sens. Actuators, A 120, 110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ura, S.

Vannucci, A.

M. Varasi, M. Signorazzi, A. Vannucci, and J. Dunphy, Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Varasi, M.

M. Varasi, M. Signorazzi, A. Vannucci, and J. Dunphy, Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Walshe, J.

D. Brennan, J. Alderman, I. Sattler, J. Walshe, J. Huang, B. O. Connor, and C. O. Mathuna, Infrared Phys. Technol. 43, 69 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

S.-W. Wang, M. Li, C. Xia, H. Wang, X. Chen, and W. Lu, '128 Channels of integrated filter array rapidly fabricated by using the combinatorial deposition technique,' submitted to Appl. Phys. B.

Wang, L.

S.-W. Wang, L. Wang, Y. Wu, Z. Wang, D. Liu, B. Lin, X. Chen, and W. Lu, Acta Opt. Sin. 26, 746 (2006) (in Chinese).

S.-W. Wang, X. Chen, W. Lu, L. Wang, Y. Wu, and Z. Wang, Opt. Lett. 31, 332 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S.-W.

S.-W. Wang, X. Chen, W. Lu, L. Wang, Y. Wu, and Z. Wang, Opt. Lett. 31, 332 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Wang, L. Wang, Y. Wu, Z. Wang, D. Liu, B. Lin, X. Chen, and W. Lu, Acta Opt. Sin. 26, 746 (2006) (in Chinese).

S.-W. Wang, D. Liu, B. Lin, X. Chen, and W. Lu, Appl. Phys. B 82, 637 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Wang, D. Liu, B. Lin, X. Chen, Z. Li, Y. Shi, W. Wang, and W. Lu, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 25, 1677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Wang, M. Li, C. Xia, H. Wang, X. Chen, and W. Lu, '128 Channels of integrated filter array rapidly fabricated by using the combinatorial deposition technique,' submitted to Appl. Phys. B.

Wang, W.

S.-W. Wang, D. Liu, B. Lin, X. Chen, Z. Li, Y. Shi, W. Wang, and W. Lu, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 25, 1677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

S.-W. Wang, L. Wang, Y. Wu, Z. Wang, D. Liu, B. Lin, X. Chen, and W. Lu, Acta Opt. Sin. 26, 746 (2006) (in Chinese).

S.-W. Wang, X. Chen, W. Lu, L. Wang, Y. Wu, and Z. Wang, Opt. Lett. 31, 332 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, P. L.

Wijngaards, D. D. L.

S. H. Kong, D. D. L. Wijngaards, and R. F. Wolffenbuttel, Sens. Actuators, A 92, 88 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wolffenbuttel, R. F.

R. F. Wolffenbuttel, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 197 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Correia, G. de Graf, M. Bartek, and R. F. Wolffenbuttel, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 37, 1344 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Kong, D. D. L. Wijngaards, and R. F. Wolffenbuttel, Sens. Actuators, A 92, 88 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

S.-W. Wang, X. Chen, W. Lu, L. Wang, Y. Wu, and Z. Wang, Opt. Lett. 31, 332 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Wang, L. Wang, Y. Wu, Z. Wang, D. Liu, B. Lin, X. Chen, and W. Lu, Acta Opt. Sin. 26, 746 (2006) (in Chinese).

Xia, C.

S.-W. Wang, M. Li, C. Xia, H. Wang, X. Chen, and W. Lu, '128 Channels of integrated filter array rapidly fabricated by using the combinatorial deposition technique,' submitted to Appl. Phys. B.

Xu, D.-X.

Yotsuya, T.

Acta Opt. Sin.

S.-W. Wang, L. Wang, Y. Wu, Z. Wang, D. Liu, B. Lin, X. Chen, and W. Lu, Acta Opt. Sin. 26, 746 (2006) (in Chinese).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

S.-W. Wang, D. Liu, B. Lin, X. Chen, and W. Lu, Appl. Phys. B 82, 637 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

H. L. Kung, S. R. Bhalotra, J. D. Mansell, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, Jr., IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits

J. H. Correia, G. de Graf, M. Bartek, and R. F. Wolffenbuttel, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 37, 1344 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.

R. F. Wolffenbuttel, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 197 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. Technol.

D. Brennan, J. Alderman, I. Sattler, J. Walshe, J. Huang, B. O. Connor, and C. O. Mathuna, Infrared Phys. Technol. 43, 69 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves

S.-W. Wang, D. Liu, B. Lin, X. Chen, Z. Li, Y. Shi, W. Wang, and W. Lu, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 25, 1677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

M. Varasi, M. Signorazzi, A. Vannucci, and J. Dunphy, Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

K. Chaganti, I. Salakhutdinov, I. Avrutsky, and G. W. Auner, Opt. Express 14, 4065 (2006).

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

A. M. Milica, Proc. SPIE 1298, 127 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators, A

G. Lammel, S. Schweizer, and Ph. Renaud, Sens. Actuators, A 92, 52 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Kong, D. D. L. Wijngaards, and R. F. Wolffenbuttel, Sens. Actuators, A 92, 88 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Sander and J. Muller, Sens. Actuators, A 88, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, S. R. Bhalotra, H. L. Kung, and D. A. B. Miller, Sens. Actuators, A 120, 110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

S.-W. Wang, M. Li, C. Xia, H. Wang, X. Chen, and W. Lu, '128 Channels of integrated filter array rapidly fabricated by using the combinatorial deposition technique,' submitted to Appl. Phys. B.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Spectra of the 128-channel integrated filter array fabricated by using the combinatorial deposition technique, with an element size of 1.5 mm × 0.75 mm and total size of 12 mm × 12 mm . (b) Peak wavelength of each filter element.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of a compact spectrometer composed of the 128-channel integrated filter array and a CCD. It is very compact and stable, since the filter array is placed in front of the CCD with no moving parts. Different monochromatic light waves will propagate through different filter elements and reach corresponding pixels of the CCD.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two pictures of the 128-channel integrated filter array captured by a CCD when monochromatic light of (a) 760 and (b) 840 nm is incident on it. Only the light with a wavelength close to the channel of a filter element can propagate through that element.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectra of a filter sample measured by both (a) a conventional Lambda900 UV-Vis-NIR Spectrometer and (b) our filter array spectrometer. They agree very well.

Metrics