Abstract

We have demonstrated a surface plasmon polariton mediated optical Moiré effect by inserting a silver slab between two subwavelength gratings. Enhancement of the evanescent fields by the surface plasmon excitations on the silver slab leads to a remarkable contrast improvement in the Moiré fringes from two subwavelength gratings. Numerical calculations, which agree very well with the experimental observation of evanescent-wave Moiré fringes, elucidate the crucial role of the surface plasmon polaritons. The near-field Moiré effect has potential applications to extend the existing Moiré techniques to subwavelength characterization of nanostructures.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. O. Kafri and I. Glatt, The Physics of Moiré Metrology (Wiley, 1989).
  2. C. A. Walker, Handbook of Moiré Measurement (IoP Publishing, 2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. C. Flanders, H. I. Smith, and S. Austin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 426 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988).
  5. K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. M. Nie and S. R. Emery, Science 275, 1102 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K.-H. Su, S. Durant, J. M. Steele, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 3964 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. K. Chen, A. R. B. de Castro, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 145 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. M. Kim, S. S. Elovikov, T. V. Murzina, A. A. Nikulin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, M. A. Bader, and G. Marowsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227402 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, Nat. Mater. 3, 601 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Z. W. Liu, N. Fang, T.-J. Yen, and X. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5184 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. R. Smith, Science 308, 502 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Lee, Y. Xiong, N. Fang, W. Srituravanich, S. Durant, M. Ambati, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, New J. Phys. 7, 255 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

K.-H. Su, S. Durant, J. M. Steele, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 3964 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

E. M. Kim, S. S. Elovikov, T. V. Murzina, A. A. Nikulin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, M. A. Bader, and G. Marowsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, Science 308, 502 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lee, Y. Xiong, N. Fang, W. Srituravanich, S. Durant, M. Ambati, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, New J. Phys. 7, 255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, Nat. Mater. 3, 601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

Z. W. Liu, N. Fang, T.-J. Yen, and X. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5184 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Nie and S. R. Emery, Science 275, 1102 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

C. K. Chen, A. R. B. de Castro, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 145 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

D. C. Flanders, H. I. Smith, and S. Austin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 426 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Aktsipetrov, O. A.

E. M. Kim, S. S. Elovikov, T. V. Murzina, A. A. Nikulin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, M. A. Bader, and G. Marowsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ambati, M.

H. Lee, Y. Xiong, N. Fang, W. Srituravanich, S. Durant, M. Ambati, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, New J. Phys. 7, 255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Austin, S.

D. C. Flanders, H. I. Smith, and S. Austin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 426 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bader, M. A.

E. M. Kim, S. S. Elovikov, T. V. Murzina, A. A. Nikulin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, M. A. Bader, and G. Marowsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. K.

C. K. Chen, A. R. B. de Castro, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 145 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

de Castro, A. R. B.

C. K. Chen, A. R. B. de Castro, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 145 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Durant, S.

K.-H. Su, S. Durant, J. M. Steele, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 3964 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lee, Y. Xiong, N. Fang, W. Srituravanich, S. Durant, M. Ambati, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, New J. Phys. 7, 255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Elovikov, S. S.

E. M. Kim, S. S. Elovikov, T. V. Murzina, A. A. Nikulin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, M. A. Bader, and G. Marowsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emery, S. R.

S. M. Nie and S. R. Emery, Science 275, 1102 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, N.

H. Lee, Y. Xiong, N. Fang, W. Srituravanich, S. Durant, M. Ambati, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, New J. Phys. 7, 255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. W. Liu, N. Fang, T.-J. Yen, and X. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5184 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Flanders, D. C.

D. C. Flanders, H. I. Smith, and S. Austin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 426 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Glatt, I.

O. Kafri and I. Glatt, The Physics of Moiré Metrology (Wiley, 1989).

Itzkan, I.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kafri, O.

O. Kafri and I. Glatt, The Physics of Moiré Metrology (Wiley, 1989).

Kim, E. M.

E. M. Kim, S. S. Elovikov, T. V. Murzina, A. A. Nikulin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, M. A. Bader, and G. Marowsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kneipp, H.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kneipp, K.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lee, Y. Xiong, N. Fang, W. Srituravanich, S. Durant, M. Ambati, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, New J. Phys. 7, 255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. W.

Z. W. Liu, N. Fang, T.-J. Yen, and X. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5184 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marowsky, G.

E. M. Kim, S. S. Elovikov, T. V. Murzina, A. A. Nikulin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, M. A. Bader, and G. Marowsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mukai, T.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, Nat. Mater. 3, 601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murzina, T. V.

E. M. Kim, S. S. Elovikov, T. V. Murzina, A. A. Nikulin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, M. A. Bader, and G. Marowsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narukawa, Y.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, Nat. Mater. 3, 601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nie, S. M.

S. M. Nie and S. R. Emery, Science 275, 1102 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niki, I.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, Nat. Mater. 3, 601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikulin, A. A.

E. M. Kim, S. S. Elovikov, T. V. Murzina, A. A. Nikulin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, M. A. Bader, and G. Marowsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, Nat. Mater. 3, 601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perelman, L. T.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988).

Scherer, A.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, Nat. Mater. 3, 601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Y. R.

C. K. Chen, A. R. B. de Castro, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 145 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Shvartser, A.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, Nat. Mater. 3, 601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

D. R. Smith, Science 308, 502 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, H. I.

D. C. Flanders, H. I. Smith, and S. Austin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 426 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Srituravanich, W.

H. Lee, Y. Xiong, N. Fang, W. Srituravanich, S. Durant, M. Ambati, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, New J. Phys. 7, 255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Steele, J. M.

K.-H. Su, S. Durant, J. M. Steele, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 3964 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, K.-H.

K.-H. Su, S. Durant, J. M. Steele, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 3964 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

K.-H. Su, S. Durant, J. M. Steele, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 3964 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lee, Y. Xiong, N. Fang, W. Srituravanich, S. Durant, M. Ambati, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, New J. Phys. 7, 255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, C. A.

C. A. Walker, Handbook of Moiré Measurement (IoP Publishing, 2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, Y.

K.-H. Su, S. Durant, J. M. Steele, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 3964 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lee, Y. Xiong, N. Fang, W. Srituravanich, S. Durant, M. Ambati, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, New J. Phys. 7, 255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yen, T.-J.

Z. W. Liu, N. Fang, T.-J. Yen, and X. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5184 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

K.-H. Su, S. Durant, J. M. Steele, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 3964 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lee, Y. Xiong, N. Fang, W. Srituravanich, S. Durant, M. Ambati, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, New J. Phys. 7, 255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. W. Liu, N. Fang, T.-J. Yen, and X. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5184 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. C. Flanders, H. I. Smith, and S. Austin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 426 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Z. W. Liu, N. Fang, T.-J. Yen, and X. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5184 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

K.-H. Su, S. Durant, J. M. Steele, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 3964 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, Nat. Mater. 3, 601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

H. Lee, Y. Xiong, N. Fang, W. Srituravanich, S. Durant, M. Ambati, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, New J. Phys. 7, 255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

C. K. Chen, A. R. B. de Castro, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 145 (1981).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Kim, S. S. Elovikov, T. V. Murzina, A. A. Nikulin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, M. A. Bader, and G. Marowsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

S. M. Nie and S. R. Emery, Science 275, 1102 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, Science 308, 502 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988).

O. Kafri and I. Glatt, The Physics of Moiré Metrology (Wiley, 1989).

C. A. Walker, Handbook of Moiré Measurement (IoP Publishing, 2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) A silver slab between two subwavelength gratings was proposed to enhance the contrast of the near-field Moiré fringes. (b) Field enhancement factor of a 35 nm thick silver slab for various incident transverse wavenumbers. The working wavelength is 376 nm in vacuum.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Total calculated electric field intensity distribution above the two gratings (on the same scale of intensity). The first grating is made from chromium with a 120 nm period, 40 nm thickness, and 50 nm opening size. The second grating is made by silver with a 150 nm period, 55 nm thickness and 105 nm opening size. The period of the Moiré fringes formed by these two gratings is 600 nm . The distances between the two gratings are (a) 70 nm and (b) 35 nm , with p-polarized illumination. (c) A 35 nm thick silver slab is inserted below the second silver grating as in (a) with p-polarized illumination. (d) Same structure as (c) with s-polarized illumination.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Contrast-enhanced Moiré fringes recorded by a CCD camera through an optical microscope under p-polarized 376 nm illumination. The sample configurations are exactly the same as Fig. 2c except that the first chromium grating period is 120 nm in (a), 130 nm in (b), and 140 nm in (c). (d) Vector representation of the Moiré effect obtained by superposing two periodic gratings.

Equations (1)

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k diff ( m , p ) = k inc + m k 1 + p k 2 ,

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