Abstract

We demonstrate in-plane microfabricated Fabry–Perot cavities with cryogenically etched silicon/air distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirrors and integrated silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides. Several DBR configurations and cavity lengths were measured. Various devices exhibit Q=26963, FWHM=0.060nm, finesse F=489, free spectral range FSR=81.7nm, and DBR mirror reflectance R=99.4%. Thermo-optic tuning over 6.7nm is also demonstrated.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. W. Pruessner, T. H. Stievater, and W. S. Rabinovich, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CFC6.
  3. E. C. Vail, M. S. Wu, G. S. Li, L. Eng, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Electron. Lett. 31, 228 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Y. Liua and S. Y. Chou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 170 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Datta, M. W. Pruessner, K. Amarnath, J. McGee, S. Kanakaraju, and R. Ghodssi, in Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2005), p. 88.
  6. C. A. Barrios, V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, B. S. Schmidt, and M. Lipson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 506 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Peyrade, E. Silberstein, Ph. Lalanne, A. Talneau, and Y. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 829 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. W. Pruessner, W. S. Rabinovich, T. H. Stievater, D. Park, and J. W. Baldwin, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 21 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. M. Nga, T. D. Moustakas, and S. N. G. Chu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2818 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. I. Babic and S. W. Corzine, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 514 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, Electron. Lett. 28, 83 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Kleckner, W. Marshall, M. J. A. de Dood, K. N. Dinyari, B.-J. Pors, W. T. M. Irvine, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173901 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

M. W. Pruessner, W. S. Rabinovich, T. H. Stievater, D. Park, and J. W. Baldwin, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 21 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

D. Kleckner, W. Marshall, M. J. A. de Dood, K. N. Dinyari, B.-J. Pors, W. T. M. Irvine, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

C. A. Barrios, V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, B. S. Schmidt, and M. Lipson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 506 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. Peyrade, E. Silberstein, Ph. Lalanne, A. Talneau, and Y. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 829 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

H. M. Nga, T. D. Moustakas, and S. N. G. Chu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2818 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Y. Liua and S. Y. Chou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 170 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

E. C. Vail, M. S. Wu, G. S. Li, L. Eng, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Electron. Lett. 31, 228 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

D. I. Babic and S. W. Corzine, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 514 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, Electron. Lett. 28, 83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

C. A. Barrios, V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, B. S. Schmidt, and M. Lipson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 506 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Amarnath, K.

M. Datta, M. W. Pruessner, K. Amarnath, J. McGee, S. Kanakaraju, and R. Ghodssi, in Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2005), p. 88.

Babic, D. I.

D. I. Babic and S. W. Corzine, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 514 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Baldwin, J. W.

M. W. Pruessner, W. S. Rabinovich, T. H. Stievater, D. Park, and J. W. Baldwin, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 21 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, C. A.

C. A. Barrios, V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, B. S. Schmidt, and M. Lipson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 506 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bouwmeester, D.

D. Kleckner, W. Marshall, M. J. A. de Dood, K. N. Dinyari, B.-J. Pors, W. T. M. Irvine, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

E. C. Vail, M. S. Wu, G. S. Li, L. Eng, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Electron. Lett. 31, 228 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

D. Peyrade, E. Silberstein, Ph. Lalanne, A. Talneau, and Y. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 829 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chou, S. Y.

M. Y. Liua and S. Y. Chou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 170 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. N. G.

H. M. Nga, T. D. Moustakas, and S. N. G. Chu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2818 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. T.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cocorullo, G.

G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, Electron. Lett. 28, 83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Corzine, S. W.

D. I. Babic and S. W. Corzine, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 514 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Datta, M.

M. Datta, M. W. Pruessner, K. Amarnath, J. McGee, S. Kanakaraju, and R. Ghodssi, in Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2005), p. 88.

de Dood, M. J. A.

D. Kleckner, W. Marshall, M. J. A. de Dood, K. N. Dinyari, B.-J. Pors, W. T. M. Irvine, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dinyari, K. N.

D. Kleckner, W. Marshall, M. J. A. de Dood, K. N. Dinyari, B.-J. Pors, W. T. M. Irvine, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eng, L.

E. C. Vail, M. S. Wu, G. S. Li, L. Eng, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Electron. Lett. 31, 228 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ghodssi, R.

M. Datta, M. W. Pruessner, K. Amarnath, J. McGee, S. Kanakaraju, and R. Ghodssi, in Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2005), p. 88.

Haus, H. A.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Irvine, W. T. M.

D. Kleckner, W. Marshall, M. J. A. de Dood, K. N. Dinyari, B.-J. Pors, W. T. M. Irvine, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanakaraju, S.

M. Datta, M. W. Pruessner, K. Amarnath, J. McGee, S. Kanakaraju, and R. Ghodssi, in Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2005), p. 88.

Kleckner, D.

D. Kleckner, W. Marshall, M. J. A. de Dood, K. N. Dinyari, B.-J. Pors, W. T. M. Irvine, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laine, J.-P.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, Ph.

D. Peyrade, E. Silberstein, Ph. Lalanne, A. Talneau, and Y. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 829 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, G. S.

E. C. Vail, M. S. Wu, G. S. Li, L. Eng, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Electron. Lett. 31, 228 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

C. A. Barrios, V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, B. S. Schmidt, and M. Lipson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 506 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liua, M. Y.

M. Y. Liua and S. Y. Chou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 170 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, W.

D. Kleckner, W. Marshall, M. J. A. de Dood, K. N. Dinyari, B.-J. Pors, W. T. M. Irvine, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGee, J.

M. Datta, M. W. Pruessner, K. Amarnath, J. McGee, S. Kanakaraju, and R. Ghodssi, in Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2005), p. 88.

Moustakas, T. D.

H. M. Nga, T. D. Moustakas, and S. N. G. Chu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2818 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nga, H. M.

H. M. Nga, T. D. Moustakas, and S. N. G. Chu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2818 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R. R.

C. A. Barrios, V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, B. S. Schmidt, and M. Lipson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 506 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, D.

M. W. Pruessner, W. S. Rabinovich, T. H. Stievater, D. Park, and J. W. Baldwin, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 21 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peyrade, D.

D. Peyrade, E. Silberstein, Ph. Lalanne, A. Talneau, and Y. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 829 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pors, B.-J.

D. Kleckner, W. Marshall, M. J. A. de Dood, K. N. Dinyari, B.-J. Pors, W. T. M. Irvine, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pruessner, M. W.

M. W. Pruessner, W. S. Rabinovich, T. H. Stievater, D. Park, and J. W. Baldwin, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 21 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Datta, M. W. Pruessner, K. Amarnath, J. McGee, S. Kanakaraju, and R. Ghodssi, in Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2005), p. 88.

M. W. Pruessner, T. H. Stievater, and W. S. Rabinovich, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CFC6.

Rabinovich, W. S.

M. W. Pruessner, W. S. Rabinovich, T. H. Stievater, D. Park, and J. W. Baldwin, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 21 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Pruessner, T. H. Stievater, and W. S. Rabinovich, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CFC6.

Rendina, I.

G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, Electron. Lett. 28, 83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B. S.

C. A. Barrios, V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, B. S. Schmidt, and M. Lipson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 506 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Silberstein, E.

D. Peyrade, E. Silberstein, Ph. Lalanne, A. Talneau, and Y. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 829 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stievater, T. H.

M. W. Pruessner, W. S. Rabinovich, T. H. Stievater, D. Park, and J. W. Baldwin, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 21 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Pruessner, T. H. Stievater, and W. S. Rabinovich, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CFC6.

Talneau, A.

D. Peyrade, E. Silberstein, Ph. Lalanne, A. Talneau, and Y. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 829 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).
[CrossRef]

Vail, E. C.

E. C. Vail, M. S. Wu, G. S. Li, L. Eng, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Electron. Lett. 31, 228 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. S.

E. C. Vail, M. S. Wu, G. S. Li, L. Eng, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Electron. Lett. 31, 228 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

M. Y. Liua and S. Y. Chou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 170 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Peyrade, E. Silberstein, Ph. Lalanne, A. Talneau, and Y. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 829 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Nga, T. D. Moustakas, and S. N. G. Chu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2818 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, Electron. Lett. 28, 83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Vail, M. S. Wu, G. S. Li, L. Eng, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Electron. Lett. 31, 228 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. I. Babic and S. W. Corzine, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 514 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

C. A. Barrios, V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, B. S. Schmidt, and M. Lipson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 506 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

M. W. Pruessner, W. S. Rabinovich, T. H. Stievater, D. Park, and J. W. Baldwin, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 21 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. Kleckner, W. Marshall, M. J. A. de Dood, K. N. Dinyari, B.-J. Pors, W. T. M. Irvine, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Pruessner, T. H. Stievater, and W. S. Rabinovich, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CFC6.

M. Datta, M. W. Pruessner, K. Amarnath, J. McGee, S. Kanakaraju, and R. Ghodssi, in Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2005), p. 88.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Deeply etched silicon/air DBR mirror with λ 4 air gaps and 5 λ 4 n Silicon silicon sections ( P = 2.5 ) . (b) Fabry–Perot cavity with rib waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured spectra for two cavity lengths and polarizations ( E , E-field perpendicular to the wafer plane; E , E-field parallel to the plane): (a) L C = 3.5 μ m and 12 μ m ( W Rib = 6 μ m ) , (b) L C = 12 μ m with 25 dB extinction. The relative on-resonance transmission of the Fabry–Perot cavity ( L C = 12 μ m , P = 2.5 , N = 5 ) compared with a 5 mm long test waveguide on the same chip was 5.6 dB (measured at resonance λ 0 = 1558.41 nm , Q = 4583 , E ).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Resonance width (FWHM) for E polarization ( L C = 12 μ m , W Rib = 6 μ m , N = 5 DBR silicon section, P = 3.5 DBR mirror periods).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

DBR reflectance for various P ( N = 5 , λ 4 air gaps, L C = 12 μ m , W Rib = 6 μ m ). Symbols, experiment ( E ) ; curves, theory. Inset, detail, R > 95 % .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Finesse: (a) varying DBR silicon section widths N ( P = 2.5 ) , (b) varying DBR periods P ( N = 5 ) . All devices: W Rib = 6 μ m and L C = 12 μ m . Symbols, experiment ( E ) ; curves, theory.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Thermo-optic tuning ( E , L C = 12 μ m , W Rib = 5 μ m , N = 5 , P = 2.5 ; Q 6000 ). The sample was placed on a copper block, which in turn rested on a thin film heater. A thermistor embedded in the copper block enabled temperature measurement. Inset, superposition of resonances at different temperatures.

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