Abstract

Single-beam laser Doppler measurements of flow velocity are only sensitive to the velocity component parallel to the optical axis. We describe a simple modification to a standard Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT) system using a single sample beam that provides velocity information from multiple angles within the beam. By introducing a glass plate midway into the OCT beam path, the sample beam is divided into several components, each with a different group delay and each providing a separate interferogram with its own effective Doppler angle. By combining the Doppler shift measured in each of these component interferograms, the flow velocity vector is fully determined.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, Opt. Lett. 22, 1439 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  13. A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, J. Barton, and J. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 123 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 3598, 168 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2003

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Iftimia, B. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 260 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Piao and Q. Zhu, Appl. Opt. 42, 5158 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, J. Barton, and J. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 123 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

1999

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 3598, 168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

1994

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliot, and N. J. Phillips, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 1132 (1994).

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

G. T. Feke, D. G. Goger, H. Tagawa, and F. C. Delori, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-34, 673 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1979

Barton, J.

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, J. Barton, and J. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 123 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

Benary, V.

Bouma, B.

N. Iftimia, B. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 260 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Dave, D.

Dave, D. P.

Delori, F. C.

G. T. Feke, D. G. Goger, H. Tagawa, and F. C. Delori, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-34, 673 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Drexler, W.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eberli, B.

Elliot, D. B.

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliot, and N. J. Phillips, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 1132 (1994).

Feke, G. T.

G. T. Feke, D. G. Goger, H. Tagawa, and F. C. Delori, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-34, 673 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. Riva, G. T. Feke, B. Eberli, and V. Benary, Appl. Opt. 18, 2301 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goger, D. G.

G. T. Feke, D. G. Goger, H. Tagawa, and F. C. Delori, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-34, 673 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gullstrand, A.

A. Gullstrand, in Handbuch der Physiologischen Optik, 3rd ed., H.von Helmholtz, ed. (Voss, 1909), Appendix II, p. 299.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N.

N. Iftimia, B. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 260 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J.

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, J. Barton, and J. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 123 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 3598, 168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, Opt. Lett. 22, 1439 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, M. D.

Lasser, T.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindmo, T.

A. Royset, T. Storen, F. Stabo-Eeg, and T. Lindmo, in Proc. SPIE 6079, 607925 (2006).

Milner, T. E.

Nelson, J. S.

Phillips, N. J.

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliot, and N. J. Phillips, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 1132 (1994).

Piao, D.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riva, C.

Rollins, A. M.

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, J. Barton, and J. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 123 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 3598, 168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Royset, A.

A. Royset, T. Storen, F. Stabo-Eeg, and T. Lindmo, in Proc. SPIE 6079, 607925 (2006).

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stabo-Eeg, F.

A. Royset, T. Storen, F. Stabo-Eeg, and T. Lindmo, in Proc. SPIE 6079, 607925 (2006).

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Storen, T.

A. Royset, T. Storen, F. Stabo-Eeg, and T. Lindmo, in Proc. SPIE 6079, 607925 (2006).

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tagawa, H.

G. T. Feke, D. G. Goger, H. Tagawa, and F. C. Delori, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-34, 673 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

N. Iftimia, B. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 260 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ung-arunyawee, R.

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 3598, 168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Welch, A. J.

Whitaker, D.

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliot, and N. J. Phillips, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 1132 (1994).

Winn, B.

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliot, and N. J. Phillips, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 1132 (1994).

Yazdanfar, S.

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, J. Barton, and J. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 123 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 3598, 168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, Opt. Lett. 22, 1439 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Q.

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

G. T. Feke, D. G. Goger, H. Tagawa, and F. C. Delori, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-34, 673 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliot, and N. J. Phillips, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 1132 (1994).

J. Biomed. Opt.

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, J. Barton, and J. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 123 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Iftimia, B. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 260 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 3598, 168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A. Royset, T. Storen, F. Stabo-Eeg, and T. Lindmo, in Proc. SPIE 6079, 607925 (2006).

A. Gullstrand, in Handbuch der Physiologischen Optik, 3rd ed., H.von Helmholtz, ed. (Voss, 1909), Appendix II, p. 299.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dual-angle, delay-encoded DOCT probe beam (a) and resultant flow phantom images (b). The three subimages in each panel are the three delay-encoded signals representing from top to bottom the undelayed path ( 1 + 1 ) , the two degenerate singly delayed cross paths ( 1 + 2 and 2 + 1 ), and the doubly delayed path ( 2 + 2 ) . The red curve in (a) denotes the Gaussian profile of the collimated sample beam. The blue lines indicate rays at the effective centers of the two beam components (see text). The horizontal striations in (b) are due to nonlinear motion in the reference arm scanner.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Estimation of (a) Doppler angle and (b) velocity using the dual-angle, delay encoded technique. Solid line, unity slope.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 RMS Errors for Estimation of Doppler Angle

Tables Icon

Table 2 RMS Errors for Estimation of Velocity for Each Angle of Incidence

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α 1 = tan 1 ( cot θ v 2 v 1 sin θ ) ,
α 2 = π θ α 1 .
V = v 1 cos α 1 = v 2 cos α 2 .
A ( r ) = A 0 e ( r r 0 ) 2 ,
x ¯ = 0 π 0 x A ( r ) 2 π r d r d ϕ 0 π 0 A ( r ) 2 π r d r d ϕ = 0 e ( r r 0 ) 2 r 2 d r 0 π sin ϕ d ϕ 0 e ( r r 0 ) 2 r d r 0 π d ϕ = r 0 π ,
θ = 2 arctan ( r 0 f π ) ,

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