Abstract

A bacteriorhodopsin (bR)-silicon n-channel metal-oxide field-effect transistor (NMOSFET) monolithically integrated photoreceiver is demonstrated. The bR film is selectively formed on an external gate electrode of the transistor by electrophoretic deposition. A modified biasing circuit is incorporated, which helps to match the resistance of the bR film to the input impedance of the NMOSFET and to shift the operating point of the transistor to coincide with the maximum gain. The photoreceiver exhibits a responsivity of 4.7mAW.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2004 (2)

J. Shin, P. Bhattacharya, J. Xu, and G. Varo, Opt. Lett. 29, 2264 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, P. Bhattacharya, and G. Varo, Biosens. Bioelectron. 19, 885 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

J. Xu, A. B. Stickrath, P. Bhattacharya, J. Nees, G. Varo, J. R. Hillerbrecht, L. Ren, and R. R. Birge, Biophys. J. 85, 1128 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Heide and H. Zimmermann, Opt. Eng. 42, 773 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. Zhan, T. Zeng, K. Cooper, and R. O. Claus, Biophys. J. 84, 2502 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

A. M. Moloney, A. P. Morrison, J. C. Jackson, A. Mathewson, and P. J. Murphy, Electron. Lett. 38, 285 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Bhattacharya, J. Xu, G. Varo, D. L. Marcy, and R. R. Birge, Opt. Lett. 27, 839 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

1999 (1)

J. He, L. Samuelson, L. Li, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 11, 435 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

J. Qi, C. L. Schow, L. D. Garrett, and J. C. Campbell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 663 (1997).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

Z. Chen and R. R. Birge, Trends Biotechnol. 11, 292 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

G. Varo, Acta Biol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 32, 301 (1981).

1971 (2)

D. Oesterhelt and W. Stoeckeniusm, Nature 233, 149 (1971).

D. Oesterhelt and W. Stoeckenius, Methods Enzymol. 31, 667 (1971).
[Crossref]

Bhattacharya, P.

J. Xu, P. Bhattacharya, and G. Varo, Biosens. Bioelectron. 19, 885 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Shin, P. Bhattacharya, J. Xu, and G. Varo, Opt. Lett. 29, 2264 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, A. B. Stickrath, P. Bhattacharya, J. Nees, G. Varo, J. R. Hillerbrecht, L. Ren, and R. R. Birge, Biophys. J. 85, 1128 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Bhattacharya, J. Xu, G. Varo, D. L. Marcy, and R. R. Birge, Opt. Lett. 27, 839 (2002).
[Crossref]

Birge, R. R.

J. Xu, A. B. Stickrath, P. Bhattacharya, J. Nees, G. Varo, J. R. Hillerbrecht, L. Ren, and R. R. Birge, Biophys. J. 85, 1128 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Bhattacharya, J. Xu, G. Varo, D. L. Marcy, and R. R. Birge, Opt. Lett. 27, 839 (2002).
[Crossref]

Z. Chen and R. R. Birge, Trends Biotechnol. 11, 292 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campbell, J. C.

J. D. Schaub, R. Li, S. M. Csutak, and J. C. Campbell, J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 272 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Qi, C. L. Schow, L. D. Garrett, and J. C. Campbell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 663 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

Z. Chen and R. R. Birge, Trends Biotechnol. 11, 292 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Claus, R. O.

L. Zhan, T. Zeng, K. Cooper, and R. O. Claus, Biophys. J. 84, 2502 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cooper, K.

L. Zhan, T. Zeng, K. Cooper, and R. O. Claus, Biophys. J. 84, 2502 (2003).
[Crossref]

Csutak, S. M.

Garrett, L. D.

J. Qi, C. L. Schow, L. D. Garrett, and J. C. Campbell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 663 (1997).
[Crossref]

He, J.

J. He, L. Samuelson, L. Li, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 11, 435 (1999).
[Crossref]

Heide, T.

T. Heide and H. Zimmermann, Opt. Eng. 42, 773 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Zimmermann and T. Heide, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 711 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hillerbrecht, J. R.

J. Xu, A. B. Stickrath, P. Bhattacharya, J. Nees, G. Varo, J. R. Hillerbrecht, L. Ren, and R. R. Birge, Biophys. J. 85, 1128 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jackson, J. C.

A. M. Moloney, A. P. Morrison, J. C. Jackson, A. Mathewson, and P. J. Murphy, Electron. Lett. 38, 285 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kumar, J.

J. He, L. Samuelson, L. Li, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 11, 435 (1999).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

J. He, L. Samuelson, L. Li, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 11, 435 (1999).
[Crossref]

Li, R.

Marcy, D. L.

Mathewson, A.

A. M. Moloney, A. P. Morrison, J. C. Jackson, A. Mathewson, and P. J. Murphy, Electron. Lett. 38, 285 (2002).
[Crossref]

Moloney, A.

A. Moloney and A. Morrison, in IEE Irish Signals and Systems Conference (IEE, 2004), pp. 179-185.

Moloney, A. M.

A. M. Moloney, A. P. Morrison, J. C. Jackson, A. Mathewson, and P. J. Murphy, Electron. Lett. 38, 285 (2002).
[Crossref]

Morrison, A.

A. Moloney and A. Morrison, in IEE Irish Signals and Systems Conference (IEE, 2004), pp. 179-185.

Morrison, A. P.

A. M. Moloney, A. P. Morrison, J. C. Jackson, A. Mathewson, and P. J. Murphy, Electron. Lett. 38, 285 (2002).
[Crossref]

Murphy, P. J.

A. M. Moloney, A. P. Morrison, J. C. Jackson, A. Mathewson, and P. J. Murphy, Electron. Lett. 38, 285 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nees, J.

J. Xu, A. B. Stickrath, P. Bhattacharya, J. Nees, G. Varo, J. R. Hillerbrecht, L. Ren, and R. R. Birge, Biophys. J. 85, 1128 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oesterhelt, D.

D. Oesterhelt and W. Stoeckeniusm, Nature 233, 149 (1971).

D. Oesterhelt and W. Stoeckenius, Methods Enzymol. 31, 667 (1971).
[Crossref]

Qi, J.

J. Qi, C. L. Schow, L. D. Garrett, and J. C. Campbell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 663 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ren, L.

J. Xu, A. B. Stickrath, P. Bhattacharya, J. Nees, G. Varo, J. R. Hillerbrecht, L. Ren, and R. R. Birge, Biophys. J. 85, 1128 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Samuelson, L.

J. He, L. Samuelson, L. Li, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 11, 435 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schaub, J. D.

Schow, C. L.

J. Qi, C. L. Schow, L. D. Garrett, and J. C. Campbell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 663 (1997).
[Crossref]

Shin, J.

Stickrath, A. B.

J. Xu, A. B. Stickrath, P. Bhattacharya, J. Nees, G. Varo, J. R. Hillerbrecht, L. Ren, and R. R. Birge, Biophys. J. 85, 1128 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stoeckenius, W.

D. Oesterhelt and W. Stoeckenius, Methods Enzymol. 31, 667 (1971).
[Crossref]

Stoeckeniusm, W.

D. Oesterhelt and W. Stoeckeniusm, Nature 233, 149 (1971).

Tripathy, S. K.

J. He, L. Samuelson, L. Li, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 11, 435 (1999).
[Crossref]

Varo, G.

J. Shin, P. Bhattacharya, J. Xu, and G. Varo, Opt. Lett. 29, 2264 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, P. Bhattacharya, and G. Varo, Biosens. Bioelectron. 19, 885 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, A. B. Stickrath, P. Bhattacharya, J. Nees, G. Varo, J. R. Hillerbrecht, L. Ren, and R. R. Birge, Biophys. J. 85, 1128 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Bhattacharya, J. Xu, G. Varo, D. L. Marcy, and R. R. Birge, Opt. Lett. 27, 839 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. Varo, Acta Biol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 32, 301 (1981).

Xu, J.

J. Xu, P. Bhattacharya, and G. Varo, Biosens. Bioelectron. 19, 885 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Shin, P. Bhattacharya, J. Xu, and G. Varo, Opt. Lett. 29, 2264 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, A. B. Stickrath, P. Bhattacharya, J. Nees, G. Varo, J. R. Hillerbrecht, L. Ren, and R. R. Birge, Biophys. J. 85, 1128 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Bhattacharya, J. Xu, G. Varo, D. L. Marcy, and R. R. Birge, Opt. Lett. 27, 839 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zeng, T.

L. Zhan, T. Zeng, K. Cooper, and R. O. Claus, Biophys. J. 84, 2502 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhan, L.

L. Zhan, T. Zeng, K. Cooper, and R. O. Claus, Biophys. J. 84, 2502 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zimmermann, H.

T. Heide and H. Zimmermann, Opt. Eng. 42, 773 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Zimmermann and T. Heide, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 711 (2001).
[Crossref]

Acta Biol. Acad. Sci. Hung. (1)

G. Varo, Acta Biol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 32, 301 (1981).

Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) (1)

J. He, L. Samuelson, L. Li, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 11, 435 (1999).
[Crossref]

Biophys. J. (2)

L. Zhan, T. Zeng, K. Cooper, and R. O. Claus, Biophys. J. 84, 2502 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, A. B. Stickrath, P. Bhattacharya, J. Nees, G. Varo, J. R. Hillerbrecht, L. Ren, and R. R. Birge, Biophys. J. 85, 1128 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

J. Xu, P. Bhattacharya, and G. Varo, Biosens. Bioelectron. 19, 885 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. M. Moloney, A. P. Morrison, J. C. Jackson, A. Mathewson, and P. J. Murphy, Electron. Lett. 38, 285 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

H. Zimmermann and T. Heide, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 711 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Qi, C. L. Schow, L. D. Garrett, and J. C. Campbell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 663 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Methods Enzymol. (1)

D. Oesterhelt and W. Stoeckenius, Methods Enzymol. 31, 667 (1971).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

D. Oesterhelt and W. Stoeckeniusm, Nature 233, 149 (1971).

Opt. Eng. (1)

T. Heide and H. Zimmermann, Opt. Eng. 42, 773 (2003).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Trends Biotechnol. (1)

Z. Chen and R. R. Birge, Trends Biotechnol. 11, 292 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

A. Moloney and A. Morrison, in IEE Irish Signals and Systems Conference (IEE, 2004), pp. 179-185.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Equivalent circuit of bR-NMOSFET photoreceiver incorporating an external resistance ( R EXT = 100 Ω ) and a dc gate-source biasing voltage ( V GS = 1.1 V ) . (b) Photomicrograph of a monolithically integrated photoreceiver showing the bR detector selectively deposited on the circuit. ITO, indium tin oxide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured transconductance (gain) and drain-source current versus gate-source voltage of NMOSFET. (b) Temporal photocurrent response of the bR-NMOSFET photoreceiver incorporating a modified biasing circuit to pulsed photoexcitation on the bR photodetector. Inset, photocurrent measured by direct excitation of the channel of the transistor.

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