Abstract

Fiber Bragg gratings were written in thulium-doped and undoped single-mode ZBLAN fibers by focusing femtosecond laser pulses on the fiber core through a phase mask. Maximum index modulation of the order of 1×103 was induced in both types of fibers. Measurements of the transverse refractive index changes across the core and cladding regions indicate that the grating formation originates from a negative index change.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2005 (2)

2004 (1)

S. H. Cho, H. Kumagai, and K. Midorikawa, Opt. Mater. 26, 57 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

R. Sramek, F. Smektala, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, and P. Niay, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 277, 39 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

K. Miura, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256&257, 212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

G. M. Williams, T. E. Tsai, C. I. Merzbacher, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (2)

H. Poignant, S. Boj, E. Delevaque, M. Monerie, T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and W. X. Xie, Electron. Lett. 30, 1339 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, W. X. Xie, H. Poignant, S. Boj, E. Delevaque, and M. Monerie, Opt. Lett. 19, 1269 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernage, P.

H. Poignant, S. Boj, E. Delevaque, M. Monerie, T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and W. X. Xie, Electron. Lett. 30, 1339 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, W. X. Xie, H. Poignant, S. Boj, E. Delevaque, and M. Monerie, Opt. Lett. 19, 1269 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernier, M.

M. Bernier, R. Vallée, A. Saliminia, S. Gagnon, Y. Sheng, and S. L. Chin, paper TuE5 (talk) presented at the EPS-QEOD Europhoton Conference, Pisa, Italy, September 10-15, 2006.

Boj, S.

T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, W. X. Xie, H. Poignant, S. Boj, E. Delevaque, and M. Monerie, Opt. Lett. 19, 1269 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Poignant, S. Boj, E. Delevaque, M. Monerie, T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and W. X. Xie, Electron. Lett. 30, 1339 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brambilla, G.

Chin, S. L.

M. Bernier, R. Vallée, A. Saliminia, S. Gagnon, Y. Sheng, and S. L. Chin, paper TuE5 (talk) presented at the EPS-QEOD Europhoton Conference, Pisa, Italy, September 10-15, 2006.

Cho, S. H.

S. H. Cho, H. Kumagai, and K. Midorikawa, Opt. Mater. 26, 57 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

Delevaque, E.

H. Poignant, S. Boj, E. Delevaque, M. Monerie, T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and W. X. Xie, Electron. Lett. 30, 1339 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, W. X. Xie, H. Poignant, S. Boj, E. Delevaque, and M. Monerie, Opt. Lett. 19, 1269 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, H.

Douay, M.

R. Sramek, F. Smektala, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, and P. Niay, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 277, 39 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Friebele, E. J.

G. M. Williams, T. E. Tsai, C. I. Merzbacher, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gagnon, S.

M. Bernier, R. Vallée, A. Saliminia, S. Gagnon, Y. Sheng, and S. L. Chin, paper TuE5 (talk) presented at the EPS-QEOD Europhoton Conference, Pisa, Italy, September 10-15, 2006.

Grobnic, D.

Henderson, G.

Hirao, K.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256&257, 212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, Opt. Lett. 21, 1729 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumagai, H.

S. H. Cho, H. Kumagai, and K. Midorikawa, Opt. Mater. 26, 57 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lasser, T.

Limberger, H. G.

Lu, P.

Mazé, G.

Merzbacher, C. I.

G. M. Williams, T. E. Tsai, C. I. Merzbacher, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Midorikawa, K.

S. H. Cho, H. Kumagai, and K. Midorikawa, Opt. Mater. 26, 57 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mihailov, S. J.

Mitsuyu, T.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256&257, 212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256&257, 212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, Opt. Lett. 21, 1729 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monerie, M.

H. Poignant, S. Boj, E. Delevaque, M. Monerie, T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and W. X. Xie, Electron. Lett. 30, 1339 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, W. X. Xie, H. Poignant, S. Boj, E. Delevaque, and M. Monerie, Opt. Lett. 19, 1269 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niay, P.

R. Sramek, F. Smektala, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, and P. Niay, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 277, 39 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Poignant, S. Boj, E. Delevaque, M. Monerie, T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and W. X. Xie, Electron. Lett. 30, 1339 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, W. X. Xie, H. Poignant, S. Boj, E. Delevaque, and M. Monerie, Opt. Lett. 19, 1269 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nykogosyan, D. N.

Poignant, H.

H. Poignant, S. Boj, E. Delevaque, M. Monerie, T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and W. X. Xie, Electron. Lett. 30, 1339 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, W. X. Xie, H. Poignant, S. Boj, E. Delevaque, and M. Monerie, Opt. Lett. 19, 1269 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiu, J.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256&257, 212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Saliminia, A.

M. Bernier, R. Vallée, A. Saliminia, S. Gagnon, Y. Sheng, and S. L. Chin, paper TuE5 (talk) presented at the EPS-QEOD Europhoton Conference, Pisa, Italy, September 10-15, 2006.

Sheng, Y.

M. Bernier, R. Vallée, A. Saliminia, S. Gagnon, Y. Sheng, and S. L. Chin, paper TuE5 (talk) presented at the EPS-QEOD Europhoton Conference, Pisa, Italy, September 10-15, 2006.

Slattery, S. A.

Smektala, F.

R. Sramek, F. Smektala, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, and P. Niay, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 277, 39 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smelser, C. W.

Sramek, R.

R. Sramek, F. Smektala, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, and P. Niay, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 277, 39 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Taunay, T.

H. Poignant, S. Boj, E. Delevaque, M. Monerie, T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and W. X. Xie, Electron. Lett. 30, 1339 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, W. X. Xie, H. Poignant, S. Boj, E. Delevaque, and M. Monerie, Opt. Lett. 19, 1269 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, T. E.

G. M. Williams, T. E. Tsai, C. I. Merzbacher, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Unruh, J.

Vallée, R.

M. Bernier, R. Vallée, A. Saliminia, S. Gagnon, Y. Sheng, and S. L. Chin, paper TuE5 (talk) presented at the EPS-QEOD Europhoton Conference, Pisa, Italy, September 10-15, 2006.

Walker, R. B.

Williams, G. M.

G. M. Williams, T. E. Tsai, C. I. Merzbacher, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xie, W. X.

R. Sramek, F. Smektala, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, and P. Niay, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 277, 39 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Poignant, S. Boj, E. Delevaque, M. Monerie, T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and W. X. Xie, Electron. Lett. 30, 1339 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, W. X. Xie, H. Poignant, S. Boj, E. Delevaque, and M. Monerie, Opt. Lett. 19, 1269 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeller, M.

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. Poignant, S. Boj, E. Delevaque, M. Monerie, T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and W. X. Xie, Electron. Lett. 30, 1339 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

G. M. Williams, T. E. Tsai, C. I. Merzbacher, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Zeller, T. Lasser, H. G. Limberger, and G. Mazé, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 624 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

K. Miura, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256&257, 212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Sramek, F. Smektala, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, and P. Niay, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 277, 39 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Mater. (1)

S. H. Cho, H. Kumagai, and K. Midorikawa, Opt. Mater. 26, 57 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. Bernier, R. Vallée, A. Saliminia, S. Gagnon, Y. Sheng, and S. L. Chin, paper TuE5 (talk) presented at the EPS-QEOD Europhoton Conference, Pisa, Italy, September 10-15, 2006.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Measured transmission and reflection spectra of a FBG written in an UD-LVF at 0.9 mJ during 2 s . (b) Corresponding map of the refractive-index variation in the exposed area. The laser beam is incident from the left side of the map.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured and simulated reflection spectra for a grating written in an UD-LVF at 1.0 mJ during 20 s . Parameters for the simulation: L = 5 mm , d n ( AC ) = 0.8 × 10 3 , d n ( DC ) = 2.5 × 10 3 , and Gaussian forms are assumed for both d n ( AC ) and d n ( DC ) .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured transmission and reflection spectra for a FBG written in a Tm-LVF at 1.3 mJ during 5 s with a chirped phase mask.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation of the index modulation with annealing temperature for a grating written in the UD-LVF fiber at 1.1 mJ during 5 s . The fiber was annealed for 30 min at each temperature. The inset shows the variation of the index modulation as a function of annealing time at 150 ° C .

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