Abstract

We report the generation of ultrashort, hard-x-ray pulses from a liquid mercury target irradiated by 5kHz laser pulses. The new x-ray source is designed for time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy as well as imaging applications. This marks the first laser-driven plasma x-ray source that continuously recycles the target material, facilitating maintenance-free operation. Theoretical calculations show mercury targets emit shorter x-ray pulses than targets of lighter elements under identical illumination and x-ray detection conditions.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2005

2004

C. J. Bailat et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4517 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Benesch et al., Opt. Lett. 29, 1028 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

G. Pretzler et al.Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3623 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

K. Hatanaka et al.Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3925 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Fill et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Feurer et al., Phys. Rev. E 65, 016412/1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Korn et al., Opt. Lett. 27, 866 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang et al., Opt. Lett. 27, 963 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

H. Schwoerer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2317 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jiang et al., inProc. SPIE 4504, 42 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Reich et al., Laser Part. Beams 19, 147 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

R. J. Tompkins et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3113 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

P. V. Nickles et al., JETP Lett. 62, 927 (1995).

1994

A. Rousse et al., Phys. Rev. E 50, 2200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

J. C. Kieffer et al., Phys. Fluids B 5, 2676 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

J. D. Kmetec et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1527 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

M. M. Murnane et al., Science 251, 531 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bailat, C. J.

C. J. Bailat et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4517 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barty, C. P.

C. P. Barty et al., in Ultrafast Phenomena X, J. Fujimoto, W. Zinth, P.F. Barbara, and W.H. Knox, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1996), p. 77.

Benesch, F.

Feurer, T.

T. Feurer et al., Phys. Rev. E 65, 016412/1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fill, E.

E. Fill et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gritsai, Y.

Hatanaka, K.

K. Hatanaka et al.Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3925 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Y. Jiang et al., Opt. Lett. 27, 963 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang et al., inProc. SPIE 4504, 42 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, J. C.

J. C. Kieffer et al., Phys. Fluids B 5, 2676 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kmetec, J. D.

J. D. Kmetec et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1527 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korn, G.

Murnane, M. M.

M. M. Murnane et al., Science 251, 531 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nickles, P. V.

P. V. Nickles et al., JETP Lett. 62, 927 (1995).

Pretzler, G.

G. Pretzler et al.Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3623 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reich, C.

C. Reich et al., Laser Part. Beams 19, 147 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rousse, A.

A. Rousse et al., Phys. Rev. E 50, 2200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schwoerer, H.

H. Schwoerer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2317 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tompkins, R. J.

R. J. Tompkins et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3113 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhavoronkov, N.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. Pretzler et al.Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3623 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Hatanaka et al.Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3925 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Bailat et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4517 (2004).
[CrossRef]

JETP Lett.

P. V. Nickles et al., JETP Lett. 62, 927 (1995).

Laser Part. Beams

C. Reich et al., Laser Part. Beams 19, 147 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Fluids B

J. C. Kieffer et al., Phys. Fluids B 5, 2676 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

T. Feurer et al., Phys. Rev. E 65, 016412/1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Rousse et al., Phys. Rev. E 50, 2200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. D. Kmetec et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1527 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Schwoerer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2317 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

Y. Jiang et al., inProc. SPIE 4504, 42 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

E. Fill et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Tompkins et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3113 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science

M. M. Murnane et al., Science 251, 531 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

C. P. Barty et al., in Ultrafast Phenomena X, J. Fujimoto, W. Zinth, P.F. Barbara, and W.H. Knox, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1996), p. 77.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Target circulation system. Liquid mercury is pumped out of the interaction chamber and fills a reservoir. The hydrostatic pressure of 0.5 m pressed the mercury through the steel nozzle. The laser light, the metal beam, and the x-ray detection direction are orthogonal to one another.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

X-ray emission spectrum from the laser-driven plasma. The measured spectrum, shown with data points, is corrected for all material transmissions in the x-ray optical beam as well as the CCD sensitivity. The dotted curve is the same spectrum but additionally corrected for the hypothetical absorption by a 300 nm thick layer of mercury (see text). The thin solid curve is the corrected x-ray spectrum measured through a 25 μ m nickel foil. The data shown in Fig. 3 were measured with this nickel-filtered spectrum.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

X-ray intensities measured with a knife-edge technique and the first derivatives in the horizontal and vertical direction.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Theoretical Pulse Lengths for Continuum and K α X-Ray Emission. a

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