Abstract

We report a rapid and low cost Fourier transform spectrometer that uses a path length modulated Michelson interferometer to simultaneously measure excitation spectra and excitation wavelength-dependent emission lifetimes. Excitation spectra and lifetimes of excited tris(2,2-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II) measured using this technique corresponded to values known in the literature. Excitation-dependent lifetimes of porous silicon measured with this technique suggest the influence of quantum confinement effects. This method may be useful for measuring mixtures of emitting species with closely spaced lifetimes as well as studying excitation wavelength-dependent emission phenomena.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy, 2nd ed. (Kluwer Academic/Plenum, 1999).
  2. P. J. Moyer, A. Pridmore, T. Martin, J. Schmidt, T. Hasche, L. Eng, and J. L. Gole, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2683 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  3. D. M. Gakamsky, A. P. Demchenko, N. A. Nemkovich, A. N. Rubinov, V. I. Tomin, and N. V. Shcherbatska, Biophys. Chem. 42, 49 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. G. Hirschberg, G. Vereb, C. K. Meyer, A. K. Kirsch, E. Kohen, and T. M. Jovin, Appl. Opt. 37, 1953 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. T. Motz, D. Yelin, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Opt. Lett. 30, 2760 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. Lindner, O. Stahlhut, R. Wilhelm, and K. Ermisch, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1629 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  7. H. Du, R. A. Fuh, J. Li, A. Corkan, and J. S. Lindsey, Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 141 (1998).
  8. J. Van Houten and R. J. Watts, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 98, 4853 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. N. Demas, D. Diemente, and E. W. Harris, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 95, 6864 (1973).
    [Crossref]

2005 (1)

2000 (1)

P. J. Moyer, A. Pridmore, T. Martin, J. Schmidt, T. Hasche, L. Eng, and J. L. Gole, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2683 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. Lindner, O. Stahlhut, R. Wilhelm, and K. Ermisch, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1629 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

H. Du, R. A. Fuh, J. Li, A. Corkan, and J. S. Lindsey, Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 141 (1998).

J. G. Hirschberg, G. Vereb, C. K. Meyer, A. K. Kirsch, E. Kohen, and T. M. Jovin, Appl. Opt. 37, 1953 (1998).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

D. M. Gakamsky, A. P. Demchenko, N. A. Nemkovich, A. N. Rubinov, V. I. Tomin, and N. V. Shcherbatska, Biophys. Chem. 42, 49 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

J. Van Houten and R. J. Watts, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 98, 4853 (1976).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

J. N. Demas, D. Diemente, and E. W. Harris, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 95, 6864 (1973).
[Crossref]

Bouma, B. E.

Corkan, A.

H. Du, R. A. Fuh, J. Li, A. Corkan, and J. S. Lindsey, Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 141 (1998).

Demas, J. N.

J. N. Demas, D. Diemente, and E. W. Harris, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 95, 6864 (1973).
[Crossref]

Demchenko, A. P.

D. M. Gakamsky, A. P. Demchenko, N. A. Nemkovich, A. N. Rubinov, V. I. Tomin, and N. V. Shcherbatska, Biophys. Chem. 42, 49 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diemente, D.

J. N. Demas, D. Diemente, and E. W. Harris, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 95, 6864 (1973).
[Crossref]

Du, H.

H. Du, R. A. Fuh, J. Li, A. Corkan, and J. S. Lindsey, Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 141 (1998).

Eng, L.

P. J. Moyer, A. Pridmore, T. Martin, J. Schmidt, T. Hasche, L. Eng, and J. L. Gole, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2683 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ermisch, K.

J. Lindner, O. Stahlhut, R. Wilhelm, and K. Ermisch, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1629 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fuh, R. A.

H. Du, R. A. Fuh, J. Li, A. Corkan, and J. S. Lindsey, Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 141 (1998).

Gakamsky, D. M.

D. M. Gakamsky, A. P. Demchenko, N. A. Nemkovich, A. N. Rubinov, V. I. Tomin, and N. V. Shcherbatska, Biophys. Chem. 42, 49 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gole, J. L.

P. J. Moyer, A. Pridmore, T. Martin, J. Schmidt, T. Hasche, L. Eng, and J. L. Gole, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2683 (2000).
[Crossref]

Harris, E. W.

J. N. Demas, D. Diemente, and E. W. Harris, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 95, 6864 (1973).
[Crossref]

Hasche, T.

P. J. Moyer, A. Pridmore, T. Martin, J. Schmidt, T. Hasche, L. Eng, and J. L. Gole, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2683 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hirschberg, J. G.

Jovin, T. M.

Kirsch, A. K.

Kohen, E.

Lakowicz, J. R.

J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy, 2nd ed. (Kluwer Academic/Plenum, 1999).

Li, J.

H. Du, R. A. Fuh, J. Li, A. Corkan, and J. S. Lindsey, Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 141 (1998).

Lindner, J.

J. Lindner, O. Stahlhut, R. Wilhelm, and K. Ermisch, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1629 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lindsey, J. S.

H. Du, R. A. Fuh, J. Li, A. Corkan, and J. S. Lindsey, Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 141 (1998).

Martin, T.

P. J. Moyer, A. Pridmore, T. Martin, J. Schmidt, T. Hasche, L. Eng, and J. L. Gole, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2683 (2000).
[Crossref]

Meyer, C. K.

Motz, J. T.

Moyer, P. J.

P. J. Moyer, A. Pridmore, T. Martin, J. Schmidt, T. Hasche, L. Eng, and J. L. Gole, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2683 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nemkovich, N. A.

D. M. Gakamsky, A. P. Demchenko, N. A. Nemkovich, A. N. Rubinov, V. I. Tomin, and N. V. Shcherbatska, Biophys. Chem. 42, 49 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pridmore, A.

P. J. Moyer, A. Pridmore, T. Martin, J. Schmidt, T. Hasche, L. Eng, and J. L. Gole, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2683 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rubinov, A. N.

D. M. Gakamsky, A. P. Demchenko, N. A. Nemkovich, A. N. Rubinov, V. I. Tomin, and N. V. Shcherbatska, Biophys. Chem. 42, 49 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, J.

P. J. Moyer, A. Pridmore, T. Martin, J. Schmidt, T. Hasche, L. Eng, and J. L. Gole, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2683 (2000).
[Crossref]

Shcherbatska, N. V.

D. M. Gakamsky, A. P. Demchenko, N. A. Nemkovich, A. N. Rubinov, V. I. Tomin, and N. V. Shcherbatska, Biophys. Chem. 42, 49 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stahlhut, O.

J. Lindner, O. Stahlhut, R. Wilhelm, and K. Ermisch, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1629 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tearney, G. J.

Tomin, V. I.

D. M. Gakamsky, A. P. Demchenko, N. A. Nemkovich, A. N. Rubinov, V. I. Tomin, and N. V. Shcherbatska, Biophys. Chem. 42, 49 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vakoc, B. J.

Van Houten, J.

J. Van Houten and R. J. Watts, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 98, 4853 (1976).
[Crossref]

Vereb, G.

Watts, R. J.

J. Van Houten and R. J. Watts, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 98, 4853 (1976).
[Crossref]

Wilhelm, R.

J. Lindner, O. Stahlhut, R. Wilhelm, and K. Ermisch, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1629 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yelin, D.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. J. Moyer, A. Pridmore, T. Martin, J. Schmidt, T. Hasche, L. Eng, and J. L. Gole, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2683 (2000).
[Crossref]

Biophys. Chem. (1)

D. M. Gakamsky, A. P. Demchenko, N. A. Nemkovich, A. N. Rubinov, V. I. Tomin, and N. V. Shcherbatska, Biophys. Chem. 42, 49 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

J. Van Houten and R. J. Watts, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 98, 4853 (1976).
[Crossref]

J. N. Demas, D. Diemente, and E. W. Harris, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 95, 6864 (1973).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

H. Du, R. A. Fuh, J. Li, A. Corkan, and J. S. Lindsey, Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 141 (1998).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. Lindner, O. Stahlhut, R. Wilhelm, and K. Ermisch, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1629 (1999).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy, 2nd ed. (Kluwer Academic/Plenum, 1999).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fourier transform fluorometry. The system consists of a broadband light source (Xe lamp) and a Michelson interferometer (Ml, M2, and BS1). A second Michelson interferometer (M2, M3, and BS2) with a He Ne laser source provides a reference signal for correcting nonlinearities in M2 motion. SP, short pass filter; LP, long pass filter; BP, beam pickoff; Det, detector; other abbreviations defined in text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A sample of the raw data set and its least square fitting (curved). Data points are taken at an excitation wavelength of 458 nm . Excitation ( ) refers to the modulus of Eq. (6). Phase ( ) refers to ϕ ( σ , ν ) . Inset, residuals of the least square fitting.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Steady-state excitation spectrum (curved line) and lifetimes ( ) of Ru ( bpy ) 3 2 + in water. Inset, comparison between measured absorbance ( ) (left y axis) and the molar absorption coefficient (—) obtained from the literature[7] (right y axis).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Steady-state excitation spectrum ( ) and excitation wavelength-dependent lifetimes ( ) of laterally anodized porous silicon.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ω ( σ , ν ) = 4 π σ ν = 4 π ν λ ,
I P M T 1 ( t ) S P ( σ ) cos [ ω ( σ , ν ) ] t = S P ( σ ) cos ( 4 π σ ν t ) d σ ,
I P M T 2 ( t ) P P S X ( σ ) m ( σ , ν ) cos [ 4 π σ ν t + ϕ ( σ , ν ) + ϕ 0 ] ,
m ( σ , ν ) = [ 1 + ω 2 τ ( σ ) 2 ] 1 2 = [ 1 + 16 π 2 σ 2 ν 2 τ ( σ ) 2 ] 1 2 ,
ϕ ( σ , ν ) = tan 1 [ ω τ ( σ ) ] = tan 1 [ 4 π σ ν τ ( σ ) ] ,
I P M T 2 ( t ) S P ( σ ) S X ( σ ) m ( σ , ν ) cos [ 4 π σ ν t + ϕ ( σ , ν ) + ϕ 0 ] d σ .
I [ I P M T 2 ( t ) ] I [ I P M T 1 ( t ) ] m ( σ , ν ) exp [ i ϕ ( σ , ν ) + i ϕ 0 ] S X ( σ ) .

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