Abstract

Fluorescence tomography of diffuse media can yield optimal three-dimensional imaging when multiple projections over 360° geometries are captured, compared with limited projection angle systems such as implementations in the slab geometry. We demonstrate how it is possible to perform noncontact, 360° projection fluorescence tomography of mice using CCD-camera-based detection in free space, i.e., in the absence of matching fluids. This approach achieves high spatial sampling of photons propagating through tissue and yields a superior information content data set compared with fiber-based 360° implementations. Reconstruction feasibility using 36 projections in 10° steps is demonstrated in mice.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. H. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Patwardhan, S. R. Bloch, S. Achilefu, and J. P. Culver, Opt. Express 13, 2564 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D'Andrea, L. Spinelli, D. Cornelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2313 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. Schultz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23, 492 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Graves, J. P. Culver, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 231 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 12294 (2004).
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2003 (2)

E. E. Graves, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Med. Phys. 30, 901 (2003).
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M. Gurfinkel, S. Ke, X. X. Wen, C. Li, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Dis. Markers 19, 107 (2003).

2002 (1)

V. Ntziachristos, C. H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Med. 8, 756 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

1987 (1)

M. Potmesil, Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 40, 1 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Achilefu, S.

Bloch, S. R.

Bogdanov, A.

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 12294 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bremer, C.

V. Ntziachristos, C. H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Med. 8, 756 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cornelli, D.

C. D'Andrea, L. Spinelli, D. Cornelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2313 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cubeddu, R.

C. D'Andrea, L. Spinelli, D. Cornelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2313 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Culver, J. P.

D'Andrea, C.

C. D'Andrea, L. Spinelli, D. Cornelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2313 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graves, E.

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 12294 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graves, E. E.

Gurfinkel, M.

M. Gurfinkel, S. Ke, X. X. Wen, C. Li, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Dis. Markers 19, 107 (2003).

Hielscher, A. H.

A. H. Hielscher, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 16, 79 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Josephson, L.

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 12294 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ke, S.

M. Gurfinkel, S. Ke, X. X. Wen, C. Li, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Dis. Markers 19, 107 (2003).

Lasser, T.

T. Lasser and V. Ntziachristos, 'Surface reconstruction for 360° fluorence moledular tomography and the effects of animal motion,' IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (to be published).

Li, C.

M. Gurfinkel, S. Ke, X. X. Wen, C. Li, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Dis. Markers 19, 107 (2003).

McBride, T. O.

Ntziachristos, V.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. H. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schultz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23, 492 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Graves, J. P. Culver, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 231 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 12294 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Graves, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Med. Phys. 30, 901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, C. H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Med. 8, 756 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos and R. Weissleder, Opt. Lett. 26, 893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Lasser and V. Ntziachristos, 'Surface reconstruction for 360° fluorence moledular tomography and the effects of animal motion,' IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (to be published).

Osterberg, U. L.

Patwardhan, S. V.

Paulsen, K. D.

Pogue, B. W.

Potmesil, M.

M. Potmesil, Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 40, 1 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Prewitt, J.

Ripoll, J.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. H. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Graves, J. P. Culver, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 231 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Schultz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23, 492 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 12294 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Graves, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Med. Phys. 30, 901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schellenberger, E. A.

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 12294 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, R.

R. Schultz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23, 492 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sevick-Muraca, E. M.

M. Gurfinkel, S. Ke, X. X. Wen, C. Li, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Dis. Markers 19, 107 (2003).

Spinelli, L.

C. D'Andrea, L. Spinelli, D. Cornelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2313 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tung, C. H.

V. Ntziachristos, C. H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Med. 8, 756 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Valentini, G.

C. D'Andrea, L. Spinelli, D. Cornelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2313 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. H. V.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. H. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weissleder, R.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. H. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Graves, J. P. Culver, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 231 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 12294 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Graves, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Med. Phys. 30, 901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, C. H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Med. 8, 756 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos and R. Weissleder, Opt. Lett. 26, 893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wen, X. X.

M. Gurfinkel, S. Ke, X. X. Wen, C. Li, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Dis. Markers 19, 107 (2003).

Yessayan, D.

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 12294 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. (1)

M. Potmesil, Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 40, 1 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. (1)

A. H. Hielscher, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 16, 79 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dis. Markers (1)

M. Gurfinkel, S. Ke, X. X. Wen, C. Li, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Dis. Markers 19, 107 (2003).

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

R. Schultz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23, 492 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Med. Phys. (1)

E. E. Graves, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Med. Phys. 30, 901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. H. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Med. (1)

V. Ntziachristos, C. H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Med. 8, 756 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

C. D'Andrea, L. Spinelli, D. Cornelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2313 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 12294 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

T. Lasser and V. Ntziachristos, 'Surface reconstruction for 360° fluorence moledular tomography and the effects of animal motion,' IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (to be published).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the experimental setup utilizing noncontact illumination and detection. A photoluminescent plate, indicated by the dotted line, can be inserted as shown to facilitate surface capturing. (b) Schematic of the rotational device implementing 360 ° projection capacity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Contours from various projections of a mouse against the photoluminescent plate, (b) reconstructed three-dimensional surface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Reconstructed FMT slice obtained from a euthanized nude mouse implanted with two fluorescent tubes, (b) corresponding x-ray CT slice, and (c) three-dimensional rendering of the tubes inside the animal surface. Arrows indicate the positions of the tubes.

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