Abstract

The electric field profiles of broad-bandwidth coherent terahertz (THz) pulses, emitted by laser-wakefield-accelerated electron bunches, are studied. The near-single-cycle THz pulses are measured with two single-shot techniques in the temporal and spatial domains. Spectra of 06THz and peak fields up to 0.4MVcm1 are observed. The measured field substructure demonstrates the manifestation of spatiotemporal coupling at focus, which affects the interpretation of THz radiation as a bunch diagnostic and in high-field pump–probe experiments.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006 (3)

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. V. Filip, Cs. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, G. Fubiani, R. Huber, R. A. Kaindl, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 014801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Jamison, G. Berden, A. M. MacLeod, D. A. Jaroszynski, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, and W. A. Gillespie, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 557, 305 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. V. Filip, Cs. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, G. Fubiani, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, Phys. Plasmas 13, 056704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J. Faure, J. van Tilborg, R. A. Kaindl, and W. P. Leemans, Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, J. van Tilborg, and W. P. Leemans, Phys. Rev. E 69, 016501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, Cs. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Jamison, J. Shen, A. M. MacLeod, W. A. Gillespie, and D. A. Jaroszynski, Opt. Lett. 28, 1710 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

G. L. Carr, M. C. Martin, W. R. McKinney, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, and G. P. Williams, Nature 420, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Porras, Phys. Rev. E 65, 026606 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

1997 (1)

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1784 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. Kempe and W. Rudolph, Phys. Rev. A 48, 4721 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auerbach, D.

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, Cs. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berden, G.

S. P. Jamison, G. Berden, A. M. MacLeod, D. A. Jaroszynski, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, and W. A. Gillespie, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 557, 305 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Byrd, J.

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, Cs. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carnahan, M. A.

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, Cs. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carr, G. L.

G. L. Carr, M. C. Martin, W. R. McKinney, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, and G. P. Williams, Nature 420, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esarey, E.

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. V. Filip, Cs. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, G. Fubiani, R. Huber, R. A. Kaindl, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 014801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. V. Filip, Cs. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, G. Fubiani, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, Phys. Plasmas 13, 056704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, J. van Tilborg, and W. P. Leemans, Phys. Rev. E 69, 016501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, Cs. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faure, J.

J. Faure, J. van Tilborg, R. A. Kaindl, and W. P. Leemans, Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, Cs. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, S.

Filip, C. V.

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. V. Filip, Cs. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, G. Fubiani, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, Phys. Plasmas 13, 056704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. V. Filip, Cs. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, G. Fubiani, R. Huber, R. A. Kaindl, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 014801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fubiani, G.

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. V. Filip, Cs. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, G. Fubiani, R. Huber, R. A. Kaindl, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 014801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. V. Filip, Cs. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, G. Fubiani, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, Phys. Plasmas 13, 056704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, Cs. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallot, G.

Geddes, C. G. R.

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. V. Filip, Cs. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, G. Fubiani, R. Huber, R. A. Kaindl, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 014801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. V. Filip, Cs. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, G. Fubiani, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, Phys. Plasmas 13, 056704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, Cs. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillespie, W. A.

S. P. Jamison, G. Berden, A. M. MacLeod, D. A. Jaroszynski, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, and W. A. Gillespie, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 557, 305 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Jamison, J. Shen, A. M. MacLeod, W. A. Gillespie, and D. A. Jaroszynski, Opt. Lett. 28, 1710 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grischkowsky, D.

Hewitt, T. D.

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huber, R.

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. V. Filip, Cs. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, G. Fubiani, R. Huber, R. A. Kaindl, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 014801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunsche, S.

Ippen, E. P.

Jamison, S. P.

S. P. Jamison, G. Berden, A. M. MacLeod, D. A. Jaroszynski, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, and W. A. Gillespie, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 557, 305 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Jamison, J. Shen, A. M. MacLeod, W. A. Gillespie, and D. A. Jaroszynski, Opt. Lett. 28, 1710 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaroszynski, D. A.

S. P. Jamison, G. Berden, A. M. MacLeod, D. A. Jaroszynski, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, and W. A. Gillespie, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 557, 305 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Jamison, J. Shen, A. M. MacLeod, W. A. Gillespie, and D. A. Jaroszynski, Opt. Lett. 28, 1710 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, Z.

Jordan, K.

G. L. Carr, M. C. Martin, W. R. McKinney, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, and G. P. Williams, Nature 420, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaindl, R. A.

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. V. Filip, Cs. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, G. Fubiani, R. Huber, R. A. Kaindl, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 014801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Faure, J. van Tilborg, R. A. Kaindl, and W. P. Leemans, Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, Cs. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kempe, M.

M. Kempe and W. Rudolph, Phys. Rev. A 48, 4721 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leemans, W. P.

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. V. Filip, Cs. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, G. Fubiani, R. Huber, R. A. Kaindl, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 014801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. V. Filip, Cs. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, G. Fubiani, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, Phys. Plasmas 13, 056704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Faure, J. van Tilborg, R. A. Kaindl, and W. P. Leemans, Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, J. van Tilborg, and W. P. Leemans, Phys. Rev. E 69, 016501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, Cs. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitenstorfer, A.

MacLeod, A. M.

S. P. Jamison, G. Berden, A. M. MacLeod, D. A. Jaroszynski, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, and W. A. Gillespie, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 557, 305 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Jamison, J. Shen, A. M. MacLeod, W. A. Gillespie, and D. A. Jaroszynski, Opt. Lett. 28, 1710 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcelis, B.

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, Cs. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, M. C.

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, Cs. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Carr, M. C. Martin, W. R. McKinney, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, and G. P. Williams, Nature 420, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McKinney, W. R.

G. L. Carr, M. C. Martin, W. R. McKinney, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, and G. P. Williams, Nature 420, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neil, G. R.

G. L. Carr, M. C. Martin, W. R. McKinney, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, and G. P. Williams, Nature 420, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuss, M. C.

Porras, M. A.

M. A. Porras, Phys. Rev. E 65, 026606 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Redlich, B.

S. P. Jamison, G. Berden, A. M. MacLeod, D. A. Jaroszynski, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, and W. A. Gillespie, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 557, 305 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rudolph, W.

M. Kempe and W. Rudolph, Phys. Rev. A 48, 4721 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schroeder, C. B.

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. V. Filip, Cs. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, G. Fubiani, R. Huber, R. A. Kaindl, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 014801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. V. Filip, Cs. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, G. Fubiani, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, Phys. Plasmas 13, 056704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, J. van Tilborg, and W. P. Leemans, Phys. Rev. E 69, 016501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, Cs. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, J.

Tóth, Cs.

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. V. Filip, Cs. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, G. Fubiani, R. Huber, R. A. Kaindl, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 014801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. V. Filip, Cs. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, G. Fubiani, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, Phys. Plasmas 13, 056704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, Cs. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Meer, A. F. G.

S. P. Jamison, G. Berden, A. M. MacLeod, D. A. Jaroszynski, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, and W. A. Gillespie, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 557, 305 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Tilborg, J.

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. V. Filip, Cs. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, G. Fubiani, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, Phys. Plasmas 13, 056704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. V. Filip, Cs. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, G. Fubiani, R. Huber, R. A. Kaindl, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 014801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, J. van Tilborg, and W. P. Leemans, Phys. Rev. E 69, 016501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Faure, J. van Tilborg, R. A. Kaindl, and W. P. Leemans, Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, Cs. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. van Tilborg, "Coherent terahertz radiation from laser-wakefield-accelerated electron beams," Ph.D. thesis (Eindhoven University of Technology, 2006).

Williams, G. P.

G. L. Carr, M. C. Martin, W. R. McKinney, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, and G. P. Williams, Nature 420, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winful, H. G.

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1784 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, Opt. Express 5, 243 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1784 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1784 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (1)

G. L. Carr, M. C. Martin, W. R. McKinney, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, and G. P. Williams, Nature 420, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

S. P. Jamison, G. Berden, A. M. MacLeod, D. A. Jaroszynski, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, and W. A. Gillespie, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 557, 305 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Faure, J. van Tilborg, R. A. Kaindl, and W. P. Leemans, Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Plasmas (1)

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. V. Filip, Cs. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, G. Fubiani, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, Phys. Plasmas 13, 056704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. Kempe and W. Rudolph, Phys. Rev. A 48, 4721 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

M. A. Porras, Phys. Rev. E 65, 026606 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, J. van Tilborg, and W. P. Leemans, Phys. Rev. E 69, 016501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, C. V. Filip, Cs. Tóth, C. G. R. Geddes, G. Fubiani, R. Huber, R. A. Kaindl, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 014801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, Cs. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

M.S.Sherwin, C.A.Schmuttenmaer, and P.H.Bucksbaum, eds., Opportunities in THz Science (DOE-NSF-NIH workshop, 2004).

J. van Tilborg, "Coherent terahertz radiation from laser-wakefield-accelerated electron beams," Ph.D. thesis (Eindhoven University of Technology, 2006).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the LWFA, the THz (CTR) beam path, and the two EOS detection setups (temporal and 2D spatial). Abbreviations defined in text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured single-shot THz field profiles in terms of phase retardation Γ cor ( t ) . (b) Fourier transformation Γ cor ( ν ) of the data. The solid curves are calculated from a CTR-based model.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Three representative single-shot 2D THz images I 2 D ( x , y , τ ) , taken at different values for the delay τ between the THz and laser pulse.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

At a fixed delay τ = 0 fs , lineouts at y = 0 of three consecutive 2D shots are displayed.

Equations (1)

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Γ cor ( ν ) Γ THz ( ν ) T Ga P ( ν ) I env , 2 ( ν ) ,

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