Abstract

Optical frequency comb-based cavity-ringdown spectroscopy has recently enabled high-sensitivity absorption detection of molecules over a broad spectral range. We demonstrate an improved system based on a mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser source centered at 1.5μm, resulting in a spectrometer that is inexpensive, simple, and robust. It provides a very large spectral bandwidth (1.451.65μm) for investigation of a wide variety of molecular absorptions. Strong molecular absorptions at 1.5μm allow for detection at sensitivities approaching the 1 part in 109 volume level. We provide a detailed description of our spectrometer and present measurements of the rovibrational spectra for CO, NH3, and C2H2 with an absorption sensitivity of 2×108cm1Hz12 per detection channel.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006 (2)

E. Wahl, B. Fidric, C. Rella, S. Koulikov, B. Kharlamov, S. Tan, A. Kachanov, B. Richan, E. Crosson, B. Paldus, S. Kalaskar, and D. Bowling, Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 42, 21 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, Science 311, 1595 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

T. Gherman, E. Eslami, D. Romanini, S. Kassi, J.-C. Vial, and N. Sadeghi, J. Phys. D 37, 2408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hitran 2004 molecular database, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139 (2004).

S. Xiao and A. Weiner, Opt. Express 12, 2895 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2000 (2)

1997 (1)

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. B 65, 277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

L. Lundsberg-Hielsen, F. Hegelund, and F. M. Nicolaisen, J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 162, 230 (1993).

1988 (1)

A. O'Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Baillargeon, J.

Bowling, D.

E. Wahl, B. Fidric, C. Rella, S. Koulikov, B. Kharlamov, S. Tan, A. Kachanov, B. Richan, E. Crosson, B. Paldus, S. Kalaskar, and D. Bowling, Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 42, 21 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

Cho, A.

Crosson, E.

E. Wahl, B. Fidric, C. Rella, S. Koulikov, B. Kharlamov, S. Tan, A. Kachanov, B. Richan, E. Crosson, B. Paldus, S. Kalaskar, and D. Bowling, Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 42, 21 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deacon, D. A. G.

A. O'Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, "Molecular fingerprinting with spectrally resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb" (submitted to Nature).

Eslami, E.

T. Gherman, E. Eslami, D. Romanini, S. Kassi, J.-C. Vial, and N. Sadeghi, J. Phys. D 37, 2408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fidric, B.

E. Wahl, B. Fidric, C. Rella, S. Koulikov, B. Kharlamov, S. Tan, A. Kachanov, B. Richan, E. Crosson, B. Paldus, S. Kalaskar, and D. Bowling, Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 42, 21 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gherman, T.

T. Gherman, E. Eslami, D. Romanini, S. Kassi, J.-C. Vial, and N. Sadeghi, J. Phys. D 37, 2408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

Hall, J. L.

J. Ye and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. A 61, 061802(R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

Harb, C.

Haus, H. A.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. B 65, 277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hegelund, F.

L. Lundsberg-Hielsen, F. Hegelund, and F. M. Nicolaisen, J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 162, 230 (1993).

Hollberg, L.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, "Molecular fingerprinting with spectrally resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb" (submitted to Nature).

Hutchinson, A.

Ippen, E. P.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. B 65, 277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. J.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. B 65, 277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. J.

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, Science 311, 1595 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kachanov, A.

E. Wahl, B. Fidric, C. Rella, S. Koulikov, B. Kharlamov, S. Tan, A. Kachanov, B. Richan, E. Crosson, B. Paldus, S. Kalaskar, and D. Bowling, Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 42, 21 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalaskar, S.

E. Wahl, B. Fidric, C. Rella, S. Koulikov, B. Kharlamov, S. Tan, A. Kachanov, B. Richan, E. Crosson, B. Paldus, S. Kalaskar, and D. Bowling, Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 42, 21 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kassi, S.

T. Gherman, E. Eslami, D. Romanini, S. Kassi, J.-C. Vial, and N. Sadeghi, J. Phys. D 37, 2408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kharlamov, B.

E. Wahl, B. Fidric, C. Rella, S. Koulikov, B. Kharlamov, S. Tan, A. Kachanov, B. Richan, E. Crosson, B. Paldus, S. Kalaskar, and D. Bowling, Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 42, 21 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koulikov, S.

E. Wahl, B. Fidric, C. Rella, S. Koulikov, B. Kharlamov, S. Tan, A. Kachanov, B. Richan, E. Crosson, B. Paldus, S. Kalaskar, and D. Bowling, Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 42, 21 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitenstorfer, A.

Lundsberg-Hielsen, L.

L. Lundsberg-Hielsen, F. Hegelund, and F. M. Nicolaisen, J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 162, 230 (1993).

Mbele, V.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, "Molecular fingerprinting with spectrally resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb" (submitted to Nature).

Moll, K. D.

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, Science 311, 1595 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, L. E.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. B 65, 277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nicolaisen, F. M.

L. Lundsberg-Hielsen, F. Hegelund, and F. M. Nicolaisen, J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 162, 230 (1993).

O'Keefe, A.

A. O'Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Paldus, B.

E. Wahl, B. Fidric, C. Rella, S. Koulikov, B. Kharlamov, S. Tan, A. Kachanov, B. Richan, E. Crosson, B. Paldus, S. Kalaskar, and D. Bowling, Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 42, 21 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paldus, B. A.

Rella, C.

E. Wahl, B. Fidric, C. Rella, S. Koulikov, B. Kharlamov, S. Tan, A. Kachanov, B. Richan, E. Crosson, B. Paldus, S. Kalaskar, and D. Bowling, Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 42, 21 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richan, B.

E. Wahl, B. Fidric, C. Rella, S. Koulikov, B. Kharlamov, S. Tan, A. Kachanov, B. Richan, E. Crosson, B. Paldus, S. Kalaskar, and D. Bowling, Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 42, 21 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romanini, D.

T. Gherman, E. Eslami, D. Romanini, S. Kassi, J.-C. Vial, and N. Sadeghi, J. Phys. D 37, 2408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sadeghi, N.

T. Gherman, E. Eslami, D. Romanini, S. Kassi, J.-C. Vial, and N. Sadeghi, J. Phys. D 37, 2408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Safdi, B.

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, Science 311, 1595 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivco, D.

Spence, T.

Tamura, K.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. B 65, 277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tan, S.

E. Wahl, B. Fidric, C. Rella, S. Koulikov, B. Kharlamov, S. Tan, A. Kachanov, B. Richan, E. Crosson, B. Paldus, S. Kalaskar, and D. Bowling, Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 42, 21 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tauser, F.

Thorpe, M. J.

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, Science 311, 1595 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vial, J.-C.

T. Gherman, E. Eslami, D. Romanini, S. Kassi, J.-C. Vial, and N. Sadeghi, J. Phys. D 37, 2408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wahl, E.

E. Wahl, B. Fidric, C. Rella, S. Koulikov, B. Kharlamov, S. Tan, A. Kachanov, B. Richan, E. Crosson, B. Paldus, S. Kalaskar, and D. Bowling, Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 42, 21 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiner, A.

Xiao, S.

Ye, J.

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, Science 311, 1595 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ye and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. A 61, 061802(R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zare, R.

Zinth, W.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. B 65, 277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. (1)

E. Wahl, B. Fidric, C. Rella, S. Koulikov, B. Kharlamov, S. Tan, A. Kachanov, B. Richan, E. Crosson, B. Paldus, S. Kalaskar, and D. Bowling, Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 42, 21 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (1)

L. Lundsberg-Hielsen, F. Hegelund, and F. M. Nicolaisen, J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 162, 230 (1993).

J. Phys. D (1)

T. Gherman, E. Eslami, D. Romanini, S. Kassi, J.-C. Vial, and N. Sadeghi, J. Phys. D 37, 2408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (1)

Hitran 2004 molecular database, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139 (2004).

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. Ye and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. A 61, 061802(R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. O'Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, Science 311, 1595 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, "Molecular fingerprinting with spectrally resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb" (submitted to Nature).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the 1.55 μ m frequency comb based cavity-ringdown spectrometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Spectral power density in (dBm/nm) for the fiber laser before and after amplification and spectral broadening. (b) Dispersion and reflectivity curves of the cavity mirrors show that low dispersion ( < 15 fs 2 ) and high reflectivity ( R > 0.999 ) are maintained between 1450 and 1650 nm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Absorption spectra for 2   Torr CO, 10 mTorr N H 3 , and 1.5 mTorr C 2 H 2 , showing 150 nm of spectral information. (b) Measured and calculated normalized ringdown signals for pressure-broadened ( 2 GHz linewidth) CO transition in the current system ( 25 GHz resolution). Calculated ringdown signals for 1 GHz resolution system performing the same measurements are also shown.

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