Abstract

We report an intrinsically stable quantum key distribution scheme based on genuine frequency-coded quantum states. The qubits are efficiently processed without fiber interferometers by fully exploiting the nonlinear interaction occurring in electro-optic phase modulators. The system requires only integrated off-the-shelf devices and could be used with a true single-photon source. Preliminary experiments have been performed with weak laser pulses and have demonstrated the feasibility of this new setup.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2005

2004

E. H. Huntington and T. C. Ralph, Phys. Rev. A 69, 042318/1-5 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

O. L. Guerreau, J.-M. Merolla, A. Soujaeff, F. Patois, J.-P. Goedgebuer, and F. J. Malassenet, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. D. Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. D. Micheli, D. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, Eur. Phys. J. D 18, 155 (2002).

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, New J. Phys. 4, 41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

1995

1987

B. Glance, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 274 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Baldi, P.

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. D. Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. D. Micheli, D. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, Eur. Phys. J. D 18, 155 (2002).

Bloch, M.

M. Bloch, "Phase modulation of single-photon states," manuscript in preparation.

Duraffourg, L.

Fainman, Y.

Gisin, N.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, New J. Phys. 4, 41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. D. Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. D. Micheli, D. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, Eur. Phys. J. D 18, 155 (2002).

Glance, B.

B. Glance, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 274 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Goedgebuer, J.-P.

O. L. Guerreau, J.-M. Merolla, A. Soujaeff, F. Patois, J.-P. Goedgebuer, and F. J. Malassenet, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Duraffourg, J.-M. Merolla, J.-P. Goedgebuer, Y. Mazurenko, and W. T. Rhodes, Opt. Lett. 26, 1427 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Guerreau, O. L.

O. L. Guerreau, J.-M. Merolla, A. Soujaeff, F. Patois, J.-P. Goedgebuer, and F. J. Malassenet, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guinnard, O.

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, New J. Phys. 4, 41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hayasaka, K.

M. Keller, B. Lange, K. Hayasaka, W. Lange, and H. Walther, Nature 431, 1075 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huntington, E. H.

Keller, M.

M. Keller, B. Lange, K. Hayasaka, W. Lange, and H. Walther, Nature 431, 1075 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lange, B.

M. Keller, B. Lange, K. Hayasaka, W. Lange, and H. Walther, Nature 431, 1075 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lange, W.

M. Keller, B. Lange, K. Hayasaka, W. Lange, and H. Walther, Nature 431, 1075 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Malassenet, F. J.

O. L. Guerreau, J.-M. Merolla, A. Soujaeff, F. Patois, J.-P. Goedgebuer, and F. J. Malassenet, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marand, C.

Mazurenko, Y.

Merolla, J.-M.

O. L. Guerreau, J.-M. Merolla, A. Soujaeff, F. Patois, J.-P. Goedgebuer, and F. J. Malassenet, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Duraffourg, J.-M. Merolla, J.-P. Goedgebuer, Y. Mazurenko, and W. T. Rhodes, Opt. Lett. 26, 1427 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Micheli, M. D.

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. D. Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. D. Micheli, D. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, Eur. Phys. J. D 18, 155 (2002).

Milford, G. N.

Ostrowsky, D.

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. D. Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. D. Micheli, D. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, Eur. Phys. J. D 18, 155 (2002).

Patois, F.

O. L. Guerreau, J.-M. Merolla, A. Soujaeff, F. Patois, J.-P. Goedgebuer, and F. J. Malassenet, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ralph, T. C.

Rhodes, W. T.

Ribordy, G.

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, New J. Phys. 4, 41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Riedmatten, H. D.

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. D. Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. D. Micheli, D. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, Eur. Phys. J. D 18, 155 (2002).

Robilliard, C.

Shields, A. J.

Soujaeff, A.

O. L. Guerreau, J.-M. Merolla, A. Soujaeff, F. Patois, J.-P. Goedgebuer, and F. J. Malassenet, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stucki, D.

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, New J. Phys. 4, 41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sun, P. C.

Tanzilli, S.

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. D. Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. D. Micheli, D. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, Eur. Phys. J. D 18, 155 (2002).

Tittel, W.

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. D. Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. D. Micheli, D. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, Eur. Phys. J. D 18, 155 (2002).

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, P. D.

Walther, H.

M. Keller, B. Lange, K. Hayasaka, W. Lange, and H. Walther, Nature 431, 1075 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Z. L.

Zbinden, H.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, New J. Phys. 4, 41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. D. Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. D. Micheli, D. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, Eur. Phys. J. D 18, 155 (2002).

Eur. Phys. J. D

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. D. Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. D. Micheli, D. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, Eur. Phys. J. D 18, 155 (2002).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

O. L. Guerreau, J.-M. Merolla, A. Soujaeff, F. Patois, J.-P. Goedgebuer, and F. J. Malassenet, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

B. Glance, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 274 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Nature

M. Keller, B. Lange, K. Hayasaka, W. Lange, and H. Walther, Nature 431, 1075 (2005).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys.

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, New J. Phys. 4, 41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

E. H. Huntington and T. C. Ralph, Phys. Rev. A 69, 042318/1-5 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Bloch, "Phase modulation of single-photon states," manuscript in preparation.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Frequency-coded QKD scheme. PC, polarization controller; other abbreviations defined in text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Classical spectrum after remodulation ( μ 1 ) .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Evolution of the QBER with the equivalent transmission distance (assuming 0.25 dB km 1 loss).

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

1 ω p = 1 ω + p Ω J p ( a ) e j p ( θ π 2 ) ,
J 0 ( a ) 1 ω 0 + J 1 ( a ) e j θ 1 ω 0 + Ω + J 1 ( a ) e j θ 1 ω 0 Ω J 0 ( a ) 2 + 2 J 1 ( a ) 2 ,
± ; 1 = 1 2 1 ω 0 ± 1 2 1 ω 0 + Ω 1 2 1 ω 0 Ω ,
+ ; 2 = 1 ω 0 ,
; 2 = 1 2 1 ω 0 + Ω 1 2 1 ω 0 Ω ,
η ( ± ; 1 ) = J 0 ( a 0 ) 2 + 2 J 1 ( a 0 ) 2 0.953 ,
η ( + ; 2 ) = J 0 ( 0 ) 2 + 2 J 1 ( 0 ) 2 = 1 ,
η ( ; 2 ) = 2 J 1 ( a 1 ) 2 0.539 ,
P D 2 ( ± ; 1 ) = J 0 ( a ) 2 2 + J 1 ( a ) 2 cos 2 θ 2 J 0 ( a ) J 1 ( a ) cos θ ,
P D 1 ( ± ; 1 ) = 1 P D 2 ( ± ; 1 ) .

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