Abstract

We demonstrate femtosecond time-resolved dynamic Gabor holography using highly coherent extreme ultraviolet light generated by high harmonic upconversion of a femtosecond laser. By reflecting this light from an impulsively heated surface, we implement a simple and robust single-reflection geometry for phase-sensitive holographic detection at extreme UV wavelengths. Using this setup, we study the ultrafast deformation and subsequent acoustic oscillations within a thin metal film. These measurements exhibit subpicometer spatial sensitivity in the vertical dimension.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2005

D. J. Funk, D. S. Moore, S. D. McGrane, J. H. Reho, and R. L. Rabie, Appl. Phys. A 81, 295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

T. Saito, O. Matsuda, and O. B. Wright, Phys. Rev. B 67, 205421 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

C. Chang, E. Anderson, P. Naulleau, E. Gullikson, K. Goldberg, and D. Attwood, Opt. Lett. 27, 1028 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. T. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, Science 297, 376 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001

1999

1998

A. Rundquist, C. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, Science 280, 1412 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

1992

O. B. Wright and K. Kawashima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1668 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

G. L. Eesley, Phys. Rev. B 33, 2144 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, E.

Asaki, M.

Attwood, D.

C. Chang, E. Anderson, P. Naulleau, E. Gullikson, K. Goldberg, and D. Attwood, Opt. Lett. 27, 1028 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and Applications (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

Attwood, D. T.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. T. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, Science 297, 376 (2002).
[PubMed]

Backus, S.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. T. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, Science 297, 376 (2002).
[PubMed]

S. Backus, R. Bartels, S. Thompson, R. Dollinger, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, Opt. Lett. 26, 465 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, R.

Bartels, R. A.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. T. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, Science 297, 376 (2002).
[PubMed]

Chang, C.

Chang, Z.

A. Rundquist, C. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, Science 280, 1412 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christov, I. P.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. T. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, Science 297, 376 (2002).
[PubMed]

Dollinger, R.

Dunn, J.

Durfee, C.

A. Rundquist, C. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, Science 280, 1412 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eesley, G. L.

G. L. Eesley, Phys. Rev. B 33, 2144 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ehrlich, M. J.

Filevich, J.

Funk, D. J.

D. J. Funk, D. S. Moore, S. D. McGrane, J. H. Reho, and R. L. Rabie, Appl. Phys. A 81, 295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garvey, D.

Goldberg, K.

Green, H.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. T. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, Science 297, 376 (2002).
[PubMed]

Gullikson, E.

Herne, C.

A. Rundquist, C. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, Science 280, 1412 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, C. P.

Hunter, J. R.

Hurley, D. H.

Jacobsen, C.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. T. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, Science 297, 376 (2002).
[PubMed]

Kapteyn, H.

A. Rundquist, C. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, Science 280, 1412 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, H. C.

Kawashima, K.

O. B. Wright and K. Kawashima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1668 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keenan, R.

Liu, Y. W.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. T. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, Science 297, 376 (2002).
[PubMed]

Marconi, M. C.

Matsuda, O.

T. Saito, O. Matsuda, and O. B. Wright, Phys. Rev. B 67, 205421 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McGrane, S. D.

D. J. Funk, D. S. Moore, S. D. McGrane, J. H. Reho, and R. L. Rabie, Appl. Phys. A 81, 295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moon, S. J.

Moore, D. S.

D. J. Funk, D. S. Moore, S. D. McGrane, J. H. Reho, and R. L. Rabie, Appl. Phys. A 81, 295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M.

A. Rundquist, C. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, Science 280, 1412 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

Naulleau, P.

Ng, A.

Nilsen, J.

Paul, A.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. T. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, Science 297, 376 (2002).
[PubMed]

Rabie, R. L.

D. J. Funk, D. S. Moore, S. D. McGrane, J. H. Reho, and R. L. Rabie, Appl. Phys. A 81, 295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reho, J. H.

D. J. Funk, D. S. Moore, S. D. McGrane, J. H. Reho, and R. L. Rabie, Appl. Phys. A 81, 295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, C. J. K.

Rocca, J. J.

Rundquist, A.

A. Rundquist, C. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, Science 280, 1412 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saito, T.

T. Saito, O. Matsuda, and O. B. Wright, Phys. Rev. B 67, 205421 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shlyaptsev, V. N.

Smith, R. F.

Sokolowski-Tinten, K.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, and D. von der Linde, Appl. Phys. A 78, 483 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Temnov, V. V.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, and D. von der Linde, Appl. Phys. A 78, 483 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, S.

von der Linde, D.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, and D. von der Linde, Appl. Phys. A 78, 483 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, J. W.

Wright, O. B.

T. Saito, O. Matsuda, and O. B. Wright, Phys. Rev. B 67, 205421 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Hurley and O. B. Wright, Opt. Lett. 24, 1305 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Wright and K. Kawashima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1668 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

Zhou, P.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, and D. von der Linde, Appl. Phys. A 78, 483 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. A

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, and D. von der Linde, Appl. Phys. A 78, 483 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Funk, D. S. Moore, S. D. McGrane, J. H. Reho, and R. L. Rabie, Appl. Phys. A 81, 295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

G. L. Eesley, Phys. Rev. B 33, 2144 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. Saito, O. Matsuda, and O. B. Wright, Phys. Rev. B 67, 205421 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

O. B. Wright and K. Kawashima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1668 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

A. Rundquist, C. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, Science 280, 1412 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. T. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, Science 297, 376 (2002).
[PubMed]

Other

D. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and Applications (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for excitation and holographic detection of surface deformation. The femtosecond pump pulse excites a line focus on the thin film nickel sample. The EUV beam probes a larger region of the sample than the pump. Unperturbed regions of the sample reflect the reference beam, which interferes with the diffracted EUV light from the perturbed regions for holographic detection.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Difference in reflected EUV intensity from a 2 μ m thick aluminum film, with and without the pump pulse present, at a time delay of 150 ps . The solid line shows the dynamic hologram exhibiting the characteristic far field diffraction pattern of a slit. The calculated signal is shown as a dashed line. By analyzing many such images as a function of time delay, the diffraction pattern can be seen to disappear and reappear, as a bulk longitudinal acoustic wave packet propagates into the bulk and undergoes multiple reflections at the film/substrate interface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temporal evolution of a holographic signal such as shown in Fig. 2, measuring both the initial thermal expansion of the surface and the repeated arrival of an acoustic wave packet at the probed surface. An oscillation frequency of 46 GHz is commensurate with a 66 nm nickel film, which is in reasonable agreement with the nominal thickness of 80 ± 20 nm .

Equations (1)

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ϕ F ( x , t ) = 4 π Δ l F ( t ) λ cos ( θ ) exp ( x 2 w 2 ) ,

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