Abstract

We demonstrate extended axial flow velocity detection range in a time-domain Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) system using a modified Kasai velocity estimator with computations in both the axial and transverse directions. For a DOCT system with an 8kHz rapid-scanning optical delay line, bidirectional flow experiments showed a maximum detectable speed of >56cms using the axial Kasai estimator without the occurrence of aliasing, while the transverse Kasai estimator preserved the 7μms minimum detectable velocity to slow flow. By using a combination of transverse Kasai and axial Kasai estimators, the velocity detection dynamic range was over 100dB. Through a fiber-optic endoscopic catheter, in vivo M-mode transesophageal imaging of the pulsatile blood flow in rat aorta was demonstrated, for what is for the first time to our knowledge, with measured peak systolic blood flow velocity of >1ms, while maintaining good sensitivity to detect aortic wall motion at <2mms, using this 2D Kasai technique.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. X.-J. Wang, T. E. Milner, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 144 (1997).
  3. Z. Chen, T. E. Miller, D. Dave, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 22, 64 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, Opt. Lett. 22, 1439 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and J. A. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 123 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. V. Westphal, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 27, 34 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 25, 114 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. White, M. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Park, G. Tearney, B. Boumma, T. Chen, and J. de Boer, Opt. Express 11, 3490 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Commun. 208, 209 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, J. Pekar, S. Lo, E. Seng-Yue, A. Mok, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 794 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. L. Oldenburg, J. J. Reynolds, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, Appl. Opt. 42, 22 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. J. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Express 13, 14 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Express 14, 8 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Lett. 30, 23 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. W. Schaefer, J. J. Reynolds, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51, 186 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. T. Loupas, J. T. Powers, and R. W. Gill, Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 42, 672 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, S. J. Tang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, B. Qi, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 19 (2003).
  18. A. B. Driss, J. Benessiano, P. Poitevin, B. I. Levy, and J. B. Michel, Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 227, 851 (1997).

2006 (1)

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Express 14, 8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Lett. 30, 23 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Express 13, 14 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. W. Schaefer, J. J. Reynolds, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51, 186 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, S. J. Tang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, B. Qi, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 19 (2003).

B. White, M. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Park, G. Tearney, B. Boumma, T. Chen, and J. de Boer, Opt. Express 11, 3490 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, J. Pekar, S. Lo, E. Seng-Yue, A. Mok, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 794 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Oldenburg, J. J. Reynolds, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, Appl. Opt. 42, 22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Commun. 208, 209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and J. A. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 123 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Westphal, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 27, 34 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1997 (4)

X.-J. Wang, T. E. Milner, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 144 (1997).

Z. Chen, T. E. Miller, D. Dave, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 22, 64 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, Opt. Lett. 22, 1439 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Driss, J. Benessiano, P. Poitevin, B. I. Levy, and J. B. Michel, Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 227, 851 (1997).

1995 (1)

T. Loupas, J. T. Powers, and R. W. Gill, Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 42, 672 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and J. A. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 123 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, Opt. Lett. 22, 1439 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Benessiano, J.

A. B. Driss, J. Benessiano, P. Poitevin, B. I. Levy, and J. B. Michel, Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 227, 851 (1997).

Bisland, S.

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, S. J. Tang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, B. Qi, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 19 (2003).

Boppart, S. A.

A. W. Schaefer, J. J. Reynolds, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51, 186 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Oldenburg, J. J. Reynolds, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, Appl. Opt. 42, 22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B. E.

B. J. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Express 13, 14 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Lett. 30, 23 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boumma, B.

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T.

Chen, Z.

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Commun. 208, 209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 25, 114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X.-J. Wang, T. E. Milner, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 144 (1997).

Z. Chen, T. E. Miller, D. Dave, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 22, 64 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cobbold, R. S. C.

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Commun. 208, 209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dave, D.

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

B. J. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Express 13, 14 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 25, 114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Driss, A. B.

A. B. Driss, J. Benessiano, P. Poitevin, B. I. Levy, and J. B. Michel, Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 227, 851 (1997).

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Express 14, 8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gardiner, G.

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, S. J. Tang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, B. Qi, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 19 (2003).

Gill, R. W.

T. Loupas, J. T. Powers, and R. W. Gill, Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 42, 672 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, M. L.

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, S. J. Tang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, B. Qi, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 19 (2003).

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, J. Pekar, S. Lo, E. Seng-Yue, A. Mok, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 794 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Commun. 208, 209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Express 14, 8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Izatt, J. A.

Kulkarni, M. D.

Levy, B. I.

A. B. Driss, J. Benessiano, P. Poitevin, B. I. Levy, and J. B. Michel, Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 227, 851 (1997).

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, S.

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, J. Pekar, S. Lo, E. Seng-Yue, A. Mok, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 794 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, S. J. Tang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, B. Qi, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 19 (2003).

Loupas, T.

T. Loupas, J. T. Powers, and R. W. Gill, Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 42, 672 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Marcon, N. E.

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, S. J. Tang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, B. Qi, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 19 (2003).

Marks, D. L.

A. W. Schaefer, J. J. Reynolds, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51, 186 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Oldenburg, J. J. Reynolds, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, Appl. Opt. 42, 22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J. B.

A. B. Driss, J. Benessiano, P. Poitevin, B. I. Levy, and J. B. Michel, Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 227, 851 (1997).

Miller, T. E.

Milner, T. E.

X.-J. Wang, T. E. Milner, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 144 (1997).

Mok, A.

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, J. Pekar, S. Lo, E. Seng-Yue, A. Mok, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 794 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Commun. 208, 209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nassif, N.

Nelson, J. S.

Oh, W. Y.

Oldenburg, A. L.

A. L. Oldenburg, J. J. Reynolds, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, Appl. Opt. 42, 22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, B.

Pekar, J.

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, J. Pekar, S. Lo, E. Seng-Yue, A. Mok, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 794 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, S. J. Tang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, B. Qi, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 19 (2003).

Pierce, M.

Poitevin, P.

A. B. Driss, J. Benessiano, P. Poitevin, B. I. Levy, and J. B. Michel, Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 227, 851 (1997).

Powers, J. T.

T. Loupas, J. T. Powers, and R. W. Gill, Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 42, 672 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, B.

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, J. Pekar, S. Lo, E. Seng-Yue, A. Mok, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 794 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, S. J. Tang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, B. Qi, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 19 (2003).

Reynolds, J. J.

A. W. Schaefer, J. J. Reynolds, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51, 186 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Oldenburg, J. J. Reynolds, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, Appl. Opt. 42, 22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rollins, A. M.

V. Westphal, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 27, 34 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and J. A. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 123 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saxer, C.

Schaefer, A. W.

A. W. Schaefer, J. J. Reynolds, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51, 186 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seng-Yue, E.

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, J. Pekar, S. Lo, E. Seng-Yue, A. Mok, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 794 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, S. J. Tang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, B. Qi, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 19 (2003).

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, S. J.

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, S. J. Tang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, B. Qi, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 19 (2003).

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

B. J. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Express 13, 14 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Lett. 30, 23 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vakoc, B. J.

B. J. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Express 13, 14 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vitkin, I. A.

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, J. Pekar, S. Lo, E. Seng-Yue, A. Mok, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 794 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, S. J. Tang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, B. Qi, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 19 (2003).

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Commun. 208, 209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.-J.

X.-J. Wang, T. E. Milner, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 144 (1997).

Welch, A. J.

Westphal, V.

White, B.

Wilson, B. C.

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, J. Pekar, S. Lo, E. Seng-Yue, A. Mok, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 794 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, S. J. Tang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, B. Qi, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 19 (2003).

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Commun. 208, 209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wojtkowski, M.

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Express 14, 8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xiang, S.

Yang, V. X. D.

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, J. Pekar, S. Lo, E. Seng-Yue, A. Mok, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 794 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, S. J. Tang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, B. Qi, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 19 (2003).

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Commun. 208, 209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yazdanfar, S.

Yun, S. H.

B. J. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Express 13, 14 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Lett. 30, 23 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Commun. 208, 209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 25, 114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (1)

A. B. Driss, J. Benessiano, P. Poitevin, B. I. Levy, and J. B. Michel, Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 227, 851 (1997).

Appl. Opt. (1)

A. L. Oldenburg, J. J. Reynolds, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, Appl. Opt. 42, 22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

X.-J. Wang, T. E. Milner, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 144 (1997).

Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A, Change in the AK estimated frequency as a function of flow velocities from 57 to 34 cm s in capillary tube. B, When the no-flow AK result is subtracted from the flowing conditions, parabolic profiles are obtained.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

TK and AK estimated peak velocities (mean and SD) are compared to expected flow velocities. A, Peak velocities derived from TK and AK algorithms recorded over a large range of velocities. B, detailed view of TK (with phase unwrapping) and AK estimated velocities for lower flow velocities. See text for Zone I, II, and III definitions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

M-mode images of the three detection zones showing structural, TK, and AK color maps after flow segmentation. In (I), TK accurately measures velocity, and the aliasing rings in (II) can be unwrapped reliably. In (III), the aliasing rings cannot be accurately unwrapped. The AK is able to accurately measure flow in (III), but not in (I) and (II). Aggregation of Intralipid produced artifacts, especially at low shear rate regions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

In vivo M-mode images of transesophageal DOCT of rate aortic blood flow. A, TK results overlaid on structural image. Doppler signals indicate aortic wall motion ( ) , systolic rush of high-speed blood flow ( ) , and regions of slow flow between heart beats (white arrows). B, AK results overlaid on the same structural image, with the esophagus and aortic wall labeled. High-speed systolic flow regions consistent with large Doppler frequency shifts are clearly visualized. The temporal flow profiles measured at the dotted lines of corresponding colors in B are plotted in C.

Equations (1)

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f AK = f s 2 π tan 1 m = 0 M 2 n = 0 N 1 ( Q m , n I m + 1 , n I m , n Q m + 1 , m ) m = 0 M 2 n = 0 N 1 ( I m , n I m + 1 , n + Q m , n Q m + 1 , n ) ,

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