Abstract

Permanently fixed noisily recorded refractive index gratings are discovered in single crystals of LiNbO3:Fe upon long-term exposure to a single laser beam with high intensities of I=100kWm2 and ambient temperature. The fixing process is explained by considering the effect of laser-induced heating of the sample and the well-known simultaneous thermal fixing procedure.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. V. Voronov, I. R. Dorosh, Y. S. Kuz'minov, and N. V. Tkachenko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1346 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Goulkov, S. Odoulov, Th. Woike, J. Imbrock, M. Imlau, E. Krätzig, C. Bäumer, and H. Hesse, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195111 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Volk and M. Wöhlecke, Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 30, 125 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Goulkov, O. Fedorenko, Th. Woike, T. Granzow, M. Imlau, and M. Wöhlecke, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, 3037 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Rupp and F. Drees, Appl. Phys. B 39, 223 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  6. U. Schlarb and K. Betzler, Phys. Rev. B 48, 15613 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Jösch, R. Munser, W. Ruppel, and P. Würfel, Ferroelectrics 21, 623 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Buse, Appl. Phys. B 64, 273 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, 1993).
  10. B. I. Sturman, M. Carrascosa, F. Agulló-López, and J. Limeres, Phys. Rev. B 57, 12792 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Müller, L. Arizmendi, M. Carrascosa, and J. M. Cabrera, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 308 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. A. Ellabban, G. Mandula, M. Fally, R. A. Rupp, and L. Kovács, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 844 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Freijlich, I. de Oliveira, L. Arizmendi, and M. Carrascosa, Appl. Opt. 46, 227 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. Liu, L. Liu, L. Xu, J. Ma, and S. H. Lee, Appl. Opt. 37, 1342 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Imlau, Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 642 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2007

2006

M. Goulkov, O. Fedorenko, Th. Woike, T. Granzow, M. Imlau, and M. Wöhlecke, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, 3037 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

T. Volk and M. Wöhlecke, Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 30, 125 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Goulkov, S. Odoulov, Th. Woike, J. Imbrock, M. Imlau, E. Krätzig, C. Bäumer, and H. Hesse, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. A. Ellabban, G. Mandula, M. Fally, R. A. Rupp, and L. Kovács, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 844 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

B. Liu, L. Liu, L. Xu, J. Ma, and S. H. Lee, Appl. Opt. 37, 1342 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. I. Sturman, M. Carrascosa, F. Agulló-López, and J. Limeres, Phys. Rev. B 57, 12792 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

K. Buse, Appl. Phys. B 64, 273 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

R. Müller, L. Arizmendi, M. Carrascosa, and J. M. Cabrera, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 308 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

U. Schlarb and K. Betzler, Phys. Rev. B 48, 15613 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1986

R. Rupp and F. Drees, Appl. Phys. B 39, 223 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1980

V. V. Voronov, I. R. Dorosh, Y. S. Kuz'minov, and N. V. Tkachenko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1346 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978

W. Jösch, R. Munser, W. Ruppel, and P. Würfel, Ferroelectrics 21, 623 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Agulló-López, F.

B. I. Sturman, M. Carrascosa, F. Agulló-López, and J. Limeres, Phys. Rev. B 57, 12792 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Arizmendi, L.

J. Freijlich, I. de Oliveira, L. Arizmendi, and M. Carrascosa, Appl. Opt. 46, 227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Müller, L. Arizmendi, M. Carrascosa, and J. M. Cabrera, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 308 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bäumer, C.

M. Goulkov, S. Odoulov, Th. Woike, J. Imbrock, M. Imlau, E. Krätzig, C. Bäumer, and H. Hesse, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Betzler, K.

U. Schlarb and K. Betzler, Phys. Rev. B 48, 15613 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Buse, K.

K. Buse, Appl. Phys. B 64, 273 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cabrera, J. M.

R. Müller, L. Arizmendi, M. Carrascosa, and J. M. Cabrera, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 308 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Carrascosa, M.

J. Freijlich, I. de Oliveira, L. Arizmendi, and M. Carrascosa, Appl. Opt. 46, 227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. I. Sturman, M. Carrascosa, F. Agulló-López, and J. Limeres, Phys. Rev. B 57, 12792 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Müller, L. Arizmendi, M. Carrascosa, and J. M. Cabrera, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 308 (1995).
[CrossRef]

de Oliveira, I.

Dorosh, I. R.

V. V. Voronov, I. R. Dorosh, Y. S. Kuz'minov, and N. V. Tkachenko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1346 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Drees, F.

R. Rupp and F. Drees, Appl. Phys. B 39, 223 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ellabban, M. A.

M. A. Ellabban, G. Mandula, M. Fally, R. A. Rupp, and L. Kovács, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 844 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fally, M.

M. A. Ellabban, G. Mandula, M. Fally, R. A. Rupp, and L. Kovács, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 844 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fedorenko, O.

M. Goulkov, O. Fedorenko, Th. Woike, T. Granzow, M. Imlau, and M. Wöhlecke, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, 3037 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Freijlich, J.

Goulkov, M.

M. Goulkov, O. Fedorenko, Th. Woike, T. Granzow, M. Imlau, and M. Wöhlecke, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, 3037 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Goulkov, S. Odoulov, Th. Woike, J. Imbrock, M. Imlau, E. Krätzig, C. Bäumer, and H. Hesse, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Granzow, T.

M. Goulkov, O. Fedorenko, Th. Woike, T. Granzow, M. Imlau, and M. Wöhlecke, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, 3037 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hesse, H.

M. Goulkov, S. Odoulov, Th. Woike, J. Imbrock, M. Imlau, E. Krätzig, C. Bäumer, and H. Hesse, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Imbrock, J.

M. Goulkov, S. Odoulov, Th. Woike, J. Imbrock, M. Imlau, E. Krätzig, C. Bäumer, and H. Hesse, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Imlau, M.

M. Imlau, Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 642 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Goulkov, O. Fedorenko, Th. Woike, T. Granzow, M. Imlau, and M. Wöhlecke, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, 3037 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Goulkov, S. Odoulov, Th. Woike, J. Imbrock, M. Imlau, E. Krätzig, C. Bäumer, and H. Hesse, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jösch, W.

W. Jösch, R. Munser, W. Ruppel, and P. Würfel, Ferroelectrics 21, 623 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kovács, L.

M. A. Ellabban, G. Mandula, M. Fally, R. A. Rupp, and L. Kovács, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 844 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Krätzig, E.

M. Goulkov, S. Odoulov, Th. Woike, J. Imbrock, M. Imlau, E. Krätzig, C. Bäumer, and H. Hesse, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuz'minov, Y. S.

V. V. Voronov, I. R. Dorosh, Y. S. Kuz'minov, and N. V. Tkachenko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1346 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

Limeres, J.

B. I. Sturman, M. Carrascosa, F. Agulló-López, and J. Limeres, Phys. Rev. B 57, 12792 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

Liu, L.

Ma, J.

Mandula, G.

M. A. Ellabban, G. Mandula, M. Fally, R. A. Rupp, and L. Kovács, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 844 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Müller, R.

R. Müller, L. Arizmendi, M. Carrascosa, and J. M. Cabrera, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 308 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Munser, R.

W. Jösch, R. Munser, W. Ruppel, and P. Würfel, Ferroelectrics 21, 623 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Odoulov, S.

M. Goulkov, S. Odoulov, Th. Woike, J. Imbrock, M. Imlau, E. Krätzig, C. Bäumer, and H. Hesse, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rupp, R.

R. Rupp and F. Drees, Appl. Phys. B 39, 223 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rupp, R. A.

M. A. Ellabban, G. Mandula, M. Fally, R. A. Rupp, and L. Kovács, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 844 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ruppel, W.

W. Jösch, R. Munser, W. Ruppel, and P. Würfel, Ferroelectrics 21, 623 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Schlarb, U.

U. Schlarb and K. Betzler, Phys. Rev. B 48, 15613 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sturman, B. I.

B. I. Sturman, M. Carrascosa, F. Agulló-López, and J. Limeres, Phys. Rev. B 57, 12792 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tkachenko, N. V.

V. V. Voronov, I. R. Dorosh, Y. S. Kuz'minov, and N. V. Tkachenko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1346 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Volk, T.

T. Volk and M. Wöhlecke, Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 30, 125 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Voronov, V. V.

V. V. Voronov, I. R. Dorosh, Y. S. Kuz'minov, and N. V. Tkachenko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1346 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Wöhlecke, M.

M. Goulkov, O. Fedorenko, Th. Woike, T. Granzow, M. Imlau, and M. Wöhlecke, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, 3037 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Volk and M. Wöhlecke, Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 30, 125 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Woike, Th.

M. Goulkov, O. Fedorenko, Th. Woike, T. Granzow, M. Imlau, and M. Wöhlecke, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, 3037 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Goulkov, S. Odoulov, Th. Woike, J. Imbrock, M. Imlau, E. Krätzig, C. Bäumer, and H. Hesse, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Würfel, P.

W. Jösch, R. Munser, W. Ruppel, and P. Würfel, Ferroelectrics 21, 623 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, 1993).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

R. Rupp and F. Drees, Appl. Phys. B 39, 223 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Buse, Appl. Phys. B 64, 273 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. A. Ellabban, G. Mandula, M. Fally, R. A. Rupp, and L. Kovács, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 844 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci.

T. Volk and M. Wöhlecke, Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 30, 125 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics

W. Jösch, R. Munser, W. Ruppel, and P. Würfel, Ferroelectrics 21, 623 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

R. Müller, L. Arizmendi, M. Carrascosa, and J. M. Cabrera, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 308 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter

M. Goulkov, O. Fedorenko, Th. Woike, T. Granzow, M. Imlau, and M. Wöhlecke, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, 3037 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

M. Goulkov, S. Odoulov, Th. Woike, J. Imbrock, M. Imlau, E. Krätzig, C. Bäumer, and H. Hesse, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Schlarb and K. Betzler, Phys. Rev. B 48, 15613 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. I. Sturman, M. Carrascosa, F. Agulló-López, and J. Limeres, Phys. Rev. B 57, 12792 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A

M. Imlau, Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 642 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron.

V. V. Voronov, I. R. Dorosh, Y. S. Kuz'minov, and N. V. Tkachenko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1346 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, 1993).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Angular and time dependence of the intensity distribution recorded with a huge intensity of 100 kW m 2 and without any external heating. Bottom inset: angular distribution after 5 min of recording. Top inset: distribution after 12 h of recording.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Angular dependence of the scattered intensity after cooling the crystal to 25 ° C (circles) and after subsequent developing by white-light exposure with moderate intensity for a duration of 30 min (squares).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Intensity of the transmitted light during thermal decay of the light scattering at 100 ° C . Solid curve: fit with a monoexponential growth function. Inset: Arrhenius plot to determine the activation energy via the linear fit.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Angular and time dependence of the scattered intensity distribution according to the simultaneous fixing procedure ( I = 10 kW m 2 , T = 180 ° C ). Bottom inset: PILS prior to heating. Top inset: angular distribution after 12 h of exposure.

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