Abstract

We present what is believed to be the first direct measurement of the relative timing jitter between the two parallel pulse trains of a two-branch femtosecond erbium-doped fiber laser, operated without active stabilization. The system provides independently tunable pulses in the near infrared with durations down to 13fs. Using an interferometric optical cross-correlator, the phase-noise spectral density is measured with high sensitivity in a range from 1Hz up to the Nyquist frequency of 24.5MHz. We find an integrated jitter of 11 attoseconds directly after the amplifier stages and 43 as after propagation through free-space optics and nonlinear fibers for frequency conversion.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2007

2006

2005

R. Paschotta, B. Rudin, A. Schlatter, G. J. Spühler, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, N. Haverkamp, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 80, 185 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995

1993

Adler, F.

Apolonski, A.

Augst, S. J.

Biegert, J.

Brabec, T.

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brodschelm, A.

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-F.

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, Nat. Phys. 3, 381 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S. T.

Diddams, S. A.

Erny, C.

Fan, T. Y.

Fermann, M. E.

Foreman, S. M.

Fortier, T. M.

Fuji, T.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Fürst, C.

Gopinath, J. T.

Goto, T.

N. Nishizawa and T. Goto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L365 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grosche, G.

Hall, J. L.

Hartl, I.

Haus, H. A.

Haverkamp, N.

R. Paschotta, B. Rudin, A. Schlatter, G. J. Spühler, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, N. Haverkamp, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 80, 185 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hirai, A.

Hong, F.-L.

Huber, R.

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Inaba, H.

Ippen, E. P.

Jiang, J.

Jones, D. J.

Jørgensen, C. G.

Kapteyn, H. C.

Kärtner, F. X.

Keller, U.

C. Erny, K. Moutzouris, J. Biegert, D. Kühlke, F. Adler, A. Leitenstorfer, and U. Keller, Opt. Lett. 32, 1138 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Paschotta, B. Rudin, A. Schlatter, G. J. Spühler, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, N. Haverkamp, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 80, 185 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

Kobayashi, Y.

Kolodziejski, L. A.

Krainer, L.

R. Paschotta, B. Rudin, A. Schlatter, G. J. Spühler, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, N. Haverkamp, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 80, 185 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, Nat. Phys. 3, 381 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Fuji, A. Apolonski, and F. Krausz, Opt. Lett. 29, 632 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kühlke, D.

Kuzucu, O.

Laubereau, A.

Leitenstorfer, A.

Lipphardt, B.

Ma, L.-S.

Matsumoto, H.

Minoshima, K.

Moutzouris, K.

Murnane, M. M.

Nelson, L. E.

Newbury, N. R.

Nicholson, J. W.

Nishizawa, N.

N. Nishizawa and T. Goto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L365 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Notcutt, M.

Onae, A.

Paschotta, R.

R. Paschotta, B. Rudin, A. Schlatter, G. J. Spühler, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, N. Haverkamp, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 80, 185 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Petrich, G. S.

Rudin, B.

R. Paschotta, B. Rudin, A. Schlatter, G. J. Spühler, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, N. Haverkamp, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 80, 185 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, A.

Schibli, T. R.

Schlatter, A.

R. Paschotta, B. Rudin, A. Schlatter, G. J. Spühler, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, N. Haverkamp, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 80, 185 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schnatz, H.

Shelton, R. K.

Sotier, F.

Spühler, G. J.

R. Paschotta, B. Rudin, A. Schlatter, G. J. Spühler, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, N. Haverkamp, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 80, 185 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sugiura, T.

Takada, H.

Tamura, K.

Tandon, S. N.

Tauser, F.

Telle, H. R.

R. Paschotta, B. Rudin, A. Schlatter, G. J. Spühler, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, N. Haverkamp, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 80, 185 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Torizuka, K.

Träutlein, D.

Washburn, B. R.

Wei, Z.

Windeler, R. S.

Yan, M. F.

Ye, J.

Yoshida, M.

Zeller, S. C.

R. Paschotta, B. Rudin, A. Schlatter, G. J. Spühler, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, N. Haverkamp, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 80, 185 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

Zinth, W.

Appl. Phys. B

R. Paschotta, B. Rudin, A. Schlatter, G. J. Spühler, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, N. Haverkamp, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 80, 185 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

N. Nishizawa and T. Goto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L365 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, Nat. Phys. 3, 381 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

C. Erny, K. Moutzouris, J. Biegert, D. Kühlke, F. Adler, A. Leitenstorfer, and U. Keller, Opt. Lett. 32, 1138 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Moutzouris, F. Adler, F. Sotier, D. Träutlein, and A. Leitenstorfer, Opt. Lett. 31, 1148 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Schibli, J. Kim, O. Kuzucu, J. T. Gopinath, S. N. Tandon, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, Opt. Lett. 28, 947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, H. Inaba, H. Takada, A. Hirai, H. Matsumoto, T. Sugiura, and M. Yoshida, Opt. Lett. 28, 1516 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, N. R. Newbury, J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, Opt. Lett. 29, 250 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Augst, T. Y. Fan, and A. Sanchez, Opt. Lett. 29, 474 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Tauser, F. Adler, and A. Leitenstorfer, Opt. Lett. 29, 516 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fuji, A. Apolonski, and F. Krausz, Opt. Lett. 29, 632 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, F.-L. Hong, H. Inaba, A. Onae, H. Matsumoto, I. Hartl, and M. E. Fermann, Opt. Lett. 29, 2467 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, H. A. Haus, and L. E. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 18, 1080 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Leitenstorfer, C. Fürst, and A. Laubereau, Opt. Lett. 20, 916 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wei, Y. Kobayashi, Z. Zhang, and K. Torizuka, Opt. Lett. 26, 1806 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Shelton, S. M. Foreman, L.-S. Ma, J. L. Hall, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, M. Notcutt, and J. Ye, Opt. Lett. 27, 312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, and R. S. Windeler, Opt. Lett. 27, 445 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Scheme of the two-branch fiber laser system and the positions of the phase-noise measurements. The relative timing jitter is recorded directly after the amplifiers and once again at the end of the entire setup. OSC, mode-locked Er:fiber oscillator; AMP1, AMP2, two parallel Er:fiber amplifiers; Si-PC, silicon prism compressors; HNSF, highly nonlinear silica fibers; SF10-PC, SF10 prism compressor. Representative spectra of the laser for the first and second jitter measurement are depicted in (b) and (c), respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The output ports of the two-arm Er:fiber laser system are independently tunable by employing a HNSF and adjusting the prechirp. Each trace is vertically offset by 0.1 a.u. for clarity. The inset shows the temporal envelope (solid curve) and phase (dotted curve) of a 13 fs pulse obtained after compression of a spectrum with a center wavelength of 1235 nm and recorded via frequency-resolved optical gating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Relative jitter spectral density S Δ t and (b) integrated timing jitter Δ t rms versus frequency between the two branches measured directly after the fiber amplifiers (black) and after the entire laser system (gray).

Equations (2)

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S Δ t ( f ) = S ϕ ( f ) ( 2 π ν 0 ) 2 = [ A ( f ) 2 π ν 0 A 0 ] 2 ,
Δ t rms = [ f 0 f 1 S Δ t ( f ) d f ] 1 2 .

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