Abstract

Ultrashort pulse laser interaction with silica–silicon interfaces is presented as a means for all-solid-phase formation of high-purity silicon nanoparticles in the absence of ablation plumes or any substrate intermixing with surfaces in ambient air. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy provide definitive evidence for creation of nanocrystals in the silica host, while compressive stress in the silicon substrate corroborates the formation of optical waveguides parallel to the tracks.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2006 (2)

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 441, 960 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Piscanec, M. Cantoro, A. C. Ferrari, J. A. Zapien, Y. Lifshitz, S. T. Lee, S. Hofmann, and J. Robertson, Phys. Rev. B 68, 241312 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. J. Konstantinovic, S. Bersier, X. Wang, M. Hayne, P. Lievens, R. E. Silverans, and V. V. Moshchalkov, Phys. Rev. B 66, 161311 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, Nature 408, 440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

H. Xia, Y. L. He, L. C. Wang, W. Zhang, X. N. Liu, X. K. Zhang, D. Feng, and H. E. Jackson, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6705 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

E. Werwa, A. A. Seraphin, L. A. Chiu, C. X. Zhou, and K. D. Kolenbrander, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1821 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

L. T. Canham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1046 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

S. Furukawa and T. Miyasato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 27, L2207 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

I. Campbell, P. Fauchet, and F. Adar, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 53, 311 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

J. F. Morhange, G. Kanellis, and M. Balkanski, Solid State Commun. 31, 805 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Adar, F.

I. Campbell, P. Fauchet, and F. Adar, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 53, 311 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Balkanski, M.

J. F. Morhange, G. Kanellis, and M. Balkanski, Solid State Commun. 31, 805 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bersier, S.

M. J. Konstantinovic, S. Bersier, X. Wang, M. Hayne, P. Lievens, R. E. Silverans, and V. V. Moshchalkov, Phys. Rev. B 66, 161311 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyraz, O.

Burghoff, J.

Campbell, I.

I. Campbell, P. Fauchet, and F. Adar, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 53, 311 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Canham, L. T.

L. T. Canham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1046 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cantoro, M.

S. Piscanec, M. Cantoro, A. C. Ferrari, J. A. Zapien, Y. Lifshitz, S. T. Lee, S. Hofmann, and J. Robertson, Phys. Rev. B 68, 241312 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, L. A.

E. Werwa, A. A. Seraphin, L. A. Chiu, C. X. Zhou, and K. D. Kolenbrander, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1821 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cloutier, S. G.

S. G. Cloutier, P. A. Kossyrev, and J. Xu, Nat. Mater. 4, 887 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dal Negro, L.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, Nature 408, 440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, K. M.

Fauchet, P.

I. Campbell, P. Fauchet, and F. Adar, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 53, 311 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Feng, D.

H. Xia, Y. L. He, L. C. Wang, W. Zhang, X. N. Liu, X. K. Zhang, D. Feng, and H. E. Jackson, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6705 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A. C.

S. Piscanec, M. Cantoro, A. C. Ferrari, J. A. Zapien, Y. Lifshitz, S. T. Lee, S. Hofmann, and J. Robertson, Phys. Rev. B 68, 241312 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Foster, M. A.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 441, 960 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franzo, G.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, Nature 408, 440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furukawa, S.

S. Furukawa and T. Miyasato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 27, L2207 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 441, 960 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glezer, E. N.

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hayne, M.

M. J. Konstantinovic, S. Bersier, X. Wang, M. Hayne, P. Lievens, R. E. Silverans, and V. V. Moshchalkov, Phys. Rev. B 66, 161311 (2002).
[CrossRef]

He, Y. L.

H. Xia, Y. L. He, L. C. Wang, W. Zhang, X. N. Liu, X. K. Zhang, D. Feng, and H. E. Jackson, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6705 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P. R.

Hirao, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, Opt. Lett. 21, 1729 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hnatovsky, C.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofmann, S.

S. Piscanec, M. Cantoro, A. C. Ferrari, J. A. Zapien, Y. Lifshitz, S. T. Lee, S. Hofmann, and J. Robertson, Phys. Rev. B 68, 241312 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, H. E.

H. Xia, Y. L. He, L. C. Wang, W. Zhang, X. N. Liu, X. K. Zhang, D. Feng, and H. E. Jackson, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6705 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

Juhasz, T.

H. Liu, G. Mourou, Y. N. Picard, S. M. Yalisove, and T. Juhasz, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CThD3.
[PubMed]

Kanellis, G.

J. F. Morhange, G. Kanellis, and M. Balkanski, Solid State Commun. 31, 805 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolenbrander, K. D.

E. Werwa, A. A. Seraphin, L. A. Chiu, C. X. Zhou, and K. D. Kolenbrander, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1821 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Konstantinovic, M. J.

M. J. Konstantinovic, S. Bersier, X. Wang, M. Hayne, P. Lievens, R. E. Silverans, and V. V. Moshchalkov, Phys. Rev. B 66, 161311 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kossyrev, P. A.

S. G. Cloutier, P. A. Kossyrev, and J. Xu, Nat. Mater. 4, 887 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. T.

S. Piscanec, M. Cantoro, A. C. Ferrari, J. A. Zapien, Y. Lifshitz, S. T. Lee, S. Hofmann, and J. Robertson, Phys. Rev. B 68, 241312 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lievens, P.

M. J. Konstantinovic, S. Bersier, X. Wang, M. Hayne, P. Lievens, R. E. Silverans, and V. V. Moshchalkov, Phys. Rev. B 66, 161311 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lifshitz, Y.

S. Piscanec, M. Cantoro, A. C. Ferrari, J. A. Zapien, Y. Lifshitz, S. T. Lee, S. Hofmann, and J. Robertson, Phys. Rev. B 68, 241312 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 441, 960 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

H. Liu, G. Mourou, Y. N. Picard, S. M. Yalisove, and T. Juhasz, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CThD3.
[PubMed]

Liu, X. N.

H. Xia, Y. L. He, L. C. Wang, W. Zhang, X. N. Liu, X. K. Zhang, D. Feng, and H. E. Jackson, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6705 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mazzoleni, C.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, Nature 408, 440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miura, K.

Miyasato, T.

S. Furukawa and T. Miyasato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 27, L2207 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Morhange, J. F.

J. F. Morhange, G. Kanellis, and M. Balkanski, Solid State Commun. 31, 805 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Moshchalkov, V. V.

M. J. Konstantinovic, S. Bersier, X. Wang, M. Hayne, P. Lievens, R. E. Silverans, and V. V. Moshchalkov, Phys. Rev. B 66, 161311 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

H. Liu, G. Mourou, Y. N. Picard, S. M. Yalisove, and T. Juhasz, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CThD3.
[PubMed]

Nejadmalayeri, A. H.

Nolte, S.

Pavesi, L.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, Nature 408, 440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Picard, Y. N.

H. Liu, G. Mourou, Y. N. Picard, S. M. Yalisove, and T. Juhasz, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CThD3.
[PubMed]

Piscanec, S.

S. Piscanec, M. Cantoro, A. C. Ferrari, J. A. Zapien, Y. Lifshitz, S. T. Lee, S. Hofmann, and J. Robertson, Phys. Rev. B 68, 241312 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Priolo, F.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, Nature 408, 440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiu, J. R.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajeev, P. P.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rayner, D. M.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robertson, J.

S. Piscanec, M. Cantoro, A. C. Ferrari, J. A. Zapien, Y. Lifshitz, S. T. Lee, S. Hofmann, and J. Robertson, Phys. Rev. B 68, 241312 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B. S.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 441, 960 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seraphin, A. A.

E. Werwa, A. A. Seraphin, L. A. Chiu, C. X. Zhou, and K. D. Kolenbrander, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1821 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sharping, J. E.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 441, 960 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimotsuma, Y.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silverans, R. E.

M. J. Konstantinovic, S. Bersier, X. Wang, M. Hayne, P. Lievens, R. E. Silverans, and V. V. Moshchalkov, Phys. Rev. B 66, 161311 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Simova, E.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugimoto, N.

Taylor, R. S.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tunnermann, A.

Turner, A. C.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 441, 960 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. C.

H. Xia, Y. L. He, L. C. Wang, W. Zhang, X. N. Liu, X. K. Zhang, D. Feng, and H. E. Jackson, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6705 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

M. J. Konstantinovic, S. Bersier, X. Wang, M. Hayne, P. Lievens, R. E. Silverans, and V. V. Moshchalkov, Phys. Rev. B 66, 161311 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Werwa, E.

E. Werwa, A. A. Seraphin, L. A. Chiu, C. X. Zhou, and K. D. Kolenbrander, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1821 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Will, M.

Xia, H.

H. Xia, Y. L. He, L. C. Wang, W. Zhang, X. N. Liu, X. K. Zhang, D. Feng, and H. E. Jackson, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6705 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

S. G. Cloutier, P. A. Kossyrev, and J. Xu, Nat. Mater. 4, 887 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yalisove, S. M.

H. Liu, G. Mourou, Y. N. Picard, S. M. Yalisove, and T. Juhasz, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CThD3.
[PubMed]

Zapien, J. A.

S. Piscanec, M. Cantoro, A. C. Ferrari, J. A. Zapien, Y. Lifshitz, S. T. Lee, S. Hofmann, and J. Robertson, Phys. Rev. B 68, 241312 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

H. Xia, Y. L. He, L. C. Wang, W. Zhang, X. N. Liu, X. K. Zhang, D. Feng, and H. E. Jackson, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6705 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. K.

H. Xia, Y. L. He, L. C. Wang, W. Zhang, X. N. Liu, X. K. Zhang, D. Feng, and H. E. Jackson, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6705 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, C. X.

E. Werwa, A. A. Seraphin, L. A. Chiu, C. X. Zhou, and K. D. Kolenbrander, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1821 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

L. T. Canham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1046 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. Werwa, A. A. Seraphin, L. A. Chiu, C. X. Zhou, and K. D. Kolenbrander, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1821 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Xia, Y. L. He, L. C. Wang, W. Zhang, X. N. Liu, X. K. Zhang, D. Feng, and H. E. Jackson, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6705 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 (1)

S. Furukawa and T. Miyasato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 27, L2207 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1)

I. Campbell, P. Fauchet, and F. Adar, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 53, 311 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. G. Cloutier, P. A. Kossyrev, and J. Xu, Nat. Mater. 4, 887 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (2)

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 441, 960 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, Nature 408, 440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

M. J. Konstantinovic, S. Bersier, X. Wang, M. Hayne, P. Lievens, R. E. Silverans, and V. V. Moshchalkov, Phys. Rev. B 66, 161311 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Piscanec, M. Cantoro, A. C. Ferrari, J. A. Zapien, Y. Lifshitz, S. T. Lee, S. Hofmann, and J. Robertson, Phys. Rev. B 68, 241312 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solid State Commun. (1)

J. F. Morhange, G. Kanellis, and M. Balkanski, Solid State Commun. 31, 805 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. Liu, G. Mourou, Y. N. Picard, S. M. Yalisove, and T. Juhasz, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CThD3.
[PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dark field TEM images of the laser-structured region: (a) at the interface between Si crystal (lower left) and oxide layer (upper right) showing randomly orientated Si nanoparticles (bright dots) in the silica layer and (b) higher magnification image of this molten oxide region with silicon nanocrystals. (c) Electron diffraction pattern of (b).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical Raman spectra excited inside the modified glass zone with (a) low-power 633 nm and (b) high-power 633 and 532 nm laser light, together with fitted s-band (solid) and c-band (dotted-dashed) spectra. (c) Spectral shifts of these isolated c- and s-bands are plotted as functions of 532 and 633 nm excitation power.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The 2D maps of Raman peak shifts for (a) c-band, (b) s-band. The maps are coded in normalized pseudocolor, where dark blue to dark red colors represent low- (0.0) to high- (1.0) intensity Raman lines.

Equations (1)

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σ = 2.49 Δ ν ,

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